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Germany, Turkey, and Armenia 




GERMANY 
TURKEY 

and 

ARMENIA 



A selection of documentary 
evidence relating to the 
Armenian Atrocities from 
German and other sources 




London. 
J. J. KELIHER & CO.. Lto. 

1917. 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA 



GERMANY 
TURKEY 

and 

ARMENIA 



A selection of documentary 
evidence relating to the 
Armenian Atrocities from 
German and other sources 



London. 
J. J. KELIHER & CO., Ltd. 

1917. 



D 

659311 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page 

A. THE INVASION OF PERSIA 17 

1. Letters from German Missionaries in 

North-West Persia ... ... ... 17 

B. THE SIX ARMENL\N VILAYETS ... 21 

2. Van after the Turkish Retreat... ... 21 

3. Moush. Statement by a German Eye- 

witness ... ... ... ... ... 23 

4. Erzindjan. Statement by two Danish 

Red Cross Nurses, formerly in the 
service of the German MiHtary Mis- 
sion at Erzeroum ... ... ... 30 

5. H — : Statement made by a Danish Red 

Cross Nurse ... ... ... ... 44 

6. Malatia. Statement by a German Eye- 

witness ... ... ... ... ... 51 

C. CILICLV AND NORTHERN SYRLV ... 53 

7. Exiles from Zeitoun. Diary of a 

Foreign Resident, communicated 

by a Swiss gentleman 53 

8. Information regarding events in 

Armenia published in two periodi- 
cals issued by German Missionary 
S(x'ieties ... ... ... ... ... 61 

9. Extracts from the Records of a German 

who died in Turkey ... ... ... 66 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, -Contmued. 

Page 

10. Narrative of a German Official of the 

Bagdad Railway ... ... ... 80 

11. The Amanus Passes. Statements by 

two Swiss Ladies, resident in Turkey 86 

D. ALEPPO 93 

12. "A word to the accredited representa- 

tives of the German people " by 
Dr. Martin Niepage, teacher in the 
German Technical School at Aleppo 93 

13. Message dated 17th February, 1916, 

from a German Lady (Fraulein O.) 112 

E. THE PLACES OF EXILE 113 

14. Der-el-Zor. Letter from a German 

Lady Missionary ... ... ... 113 

15. Exiles from the Euphrates: Report 

from Fraulein O. ... ... ... 119 

APPENDIX. REPORTS BY MOHAMME- 
DAN OFFICERS 123 

(i) A.B.'s Report ... 123 

(2) C.D.'s Report 127 



INTRODUCTION. 



The blue book as to the treatment of the Armenians 
which has recently been issued (Miscellaneous, Xo. 31, 
1916) contains a large mass of evidence relating ta 
facts Avhich, incredible as they are, have been so in- 
controvertibly established that no doubt as to their exist- 
ence can possibly be entertained by any reasonable 
person. The greater part of the documents included 
in the blue book does not, however, throw much light 
on the attitude taken by the German public and the 
German Government with reference to the crimes which 
have been committed. The object of this pamphlet is 
to bring before the public a collection of documents 
specially selected for the purpose of throwing light on 
this subject. Some of ihem are included in the blue 
book, but the documents Xos. i, 6, 9, 10 and 12 have 
not, as yet, been published in Great Britain or the 
United States. The two documents printed in the 
Appendix have no direct bearing on the questions 
relating to the German attitude. But as they came 
into the possession of the British authorities after the 
publication of the blue book and are of special interest 
as giving the impressions of two intelligent Turkish 
officers,* it was thought right to include them. 



*Thc particulars as to name and rank are g:iven in the original 
documents, but must for obvious leasons be suppressed in this 
pamphlet. 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

A perusal of the documents included in this collec- 
tion must convince the reader of three things: (i) that 
the Germans in Armenia are as full of indignation, and 
as anxious to see a stop put to the methods of exter- 
mination applied by the Turkish Government, as the 
most ardent friends of the Armenian cause in this 
country; (2) that, owing to the wilful or reckless per- 
version of the facts in the German press and the German 
pamphlet-literature, and owing also to the indifference 
and credulity of the general German public, the true state 
of things is unknown or ignored by the majority ; (3) that 
the German Government could have stopped the outrages 
if they had desired to do so and that their non-inter- 
ference was not in any way due to ignorance of the true 
facts. 

One very interesting document which has come to 
the Editor's notice is of too confidential a nature to be 
reproduced in this place. It is a Memorandum written 
by a distinguished German scholar, whose name for 
•obvious reasons has to be suppressed, but whose good 
faith and whose critical acumen would be acknowledged 
by every one of his countrymen whose powers of judg- 
ment have not been perverted by the passion of war. 
This Memorandum contains ample evidence of the fact 
referred to above, that in consequence of the misstate- 
tnents or suppressions of fact of which German writers 
•on the subject have been guilty, public opinion in Ger- 
many has entirely failed to realise the horrors of the 
Armenian situation, and that some influential persons 
even approve of the action of the Turkish authorities. 
The old legend about the unscrupulousness of the 
Armenian traders and their exploitation of Turkish 
innocence and trustfulness — of which the groundless- 
ness is convincingly demonstrated by the author of the 
Memorandum — seems to be firmly believed through- 



/ 



INTRODUCriON. 

out Germany, and is made use of by those German 
politicians and journalists who approve cruelty, pro- 
vided only it serves the cause of German world- 
dominion. Thus Count Reventlow in a passage quo ted 
in the Memorandum ref ers to th ese matters in the fol- 
lowing terms: " The Turk is unsuspicious and good- 
natured ; everywhere he furnishes a convenient object 
for exploitation — up to a certain point and to a certain 
degree; then despair seizes him and he rises against 
his tormentors. Regrettable as such unlawfuT self- 
defence may be from the point of view of civilisation, 
it is obvious that the Armenians .... least of 
all deserve the pity and the compassionate emotions of 
v_the civilized world." 

The author of the Memorandum disposes of this tirade 
by saying that " it is of course unknown to the writer " 
of the passage quoted by us ** that 80 per cent, of the 
Armenian population, and particularly those who were 
affected by the deportations, are peasant farmers, who 
presumablv were not engaged in the exploitation of the 
Kurdish brigands bv whom they were surrounded. 
. The assumption that the deportation and anni- 
hilation of the Armenian race was in the nature of 
unlawful self-defence is so far removed from the true 
facts that it does not require any refutation." 

The whole German press — as stated by the author of 
the Memorandinn — reproduced an interview with Dr. 
Rifaat, a member of the Committee of Union and Pro- 
gress, originally published in a Danish paper, in the . 
course of which the interviewed politician spoke of "a ^ 
conspiracv embracing the whole Armenian population 
residing m Turkey, threatening the very existence of 
the country and intended to play Constantinople into 
the hands of the Allies." He further stated that the 
plot was discovered before it had ripened, that many 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

of the conspirators, including the Arabian Chief Abd-ul- 
Kerim, had been arrested and punished, and that 21 
of the adherents of the latter were hanged. The author 
of the Memorandum makes the following comment on 
this statement: " If Dr. Rifaat knows anything of an 
Arabian conspiracy, it is impossible for us to verify this 
finding. In any case an ' Arabian ' conspiracy is not 
an ' Armenian ' conspiracy. But the number of the 21 
conspirators hanged and the other contents of the 
'interview' lead inevitably to the conclusion that Dr. 
Rifaat did intentionally mislead 'public opinion, by 
representing the plot of the Turkish opposition which 
had already been discovered before the war/'' and which 
aimed at the fall of the present government and the 
murder of Talaat Bey and other Young Turk leaders, 
as ' a conspiracy embracing the whole Armenian popu- 
lation residing in Turkey.' " 

The interview with Dr. Rifaat is also one of the trump- 
cards played in a pamphlet published in Berlin under the 
title of "The Armenian Question" by C. A. Bratter, 
a person describing himself. as "a Citizen of a neutral 
State and a German Journalist." This pamphlet (which 
was written in order to counteract the influence of an 
appeal in favour of the Armenians over the signa- 
tures of a number of distinguished Swiss residents) 
is minutely analyzed by the author of the Memoran- 
dum, together with its pretended sources of informa- 
tion ; and he demonstrates irrefutably its utter untrust- 
worthiness as well as the bad faith of its writer. He 
significantly adds : " How forgetful and how uncritical 
must any reader be to whom it is possible to present 
such lies J '^^* 



* The italics are those of the author of the Memorandum. 
** Here ag-ain the italics are those of the author of the 
Memorandum, 



INTRODUCTION, 

Being ourselves in a position of greater freedom, we 
can say that this forgetiulness and this want of critical 
power are not surprising in the German public, having 
regard to the fact that their Government is in close alli- 
ance with the perpetrators of the crimes which Bratter 
and other persons of the same mental and moral calibre 
try to explain away or justify, and which could and 
would have been prevented long ago if that Govern- 
ment had not disregarded the elementary dictates of 
humanity. 

The German scholar's Memorandum contains some / 
very interesting evidence showing: (a) that the Arme- 
nian leaders, far from engaging in an anti-Turkish con- 
spiracy either before or during the war, were entirely 
loyal to the Turkish Government, in fact so loyal that 
this was made a cause of complaint by some of the 
Turkish opponents of the Committee of Union and Pro- 
gress; (b) that the policy finally adopted with regard 
to the Armenians was originally opposed bv some of 
the members of the ruling party, but when so adopted 
was a deliberate policy of extermination ; (c) that the 
acts of resistance on the part of the Armenians, which 
are relied upon as an excuse for their treatment, were 
isolated acts due in each case to particularly grave pro- 
vocation ; that, in every instance except that of Zeitoun, 
they were later in date than the beginning of the depor- 
tations, and were in fact provoked by the fear of suffer- 
ing the fate which had already overtaken neighbour- 
ing Armenian communities [see historical summary in 
blue book]; (d) that some of the other excuses put for- 
ward are so much at variance with the well-known facts 
that thev could only deceive persons unable or unwilling 
to ascertain the truth. 

As regards the lovalty of the Turkish Armenians, 
it is shown by extracts from leading papers, circulars 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

sent out by the ecclesiastical dignitaries and by the 
" Dashnakzagan " (the only influential party organ- 
isation of the Armenians), as well as by several 
ofificial announcements of the Turkish Government or 
of its agents, issued as late as August, 1915, that that 
loyalty was not only the policy declared by the Arme- 
nian leaders and carried out by the bulk of the popula- 
tion, but that it was also fully acknowledged by the 
authorities. 
^ In a letter dater the 26th February, 1915, written by 
Enver Pasha to the Armenian Bishop of Konia, the 
former says: " I avail myself of this opportunity to tell 
you that the Armenian soldiers in the Ottoman Army 
conscientiously perform their duties in the theatre of 
war, as I can testify from personal observation. I beg 
of you to communicate to the Armenian people, whose 
perfect devotion to the Ottoman Government is well 
known, the expression of my satisfaction and grati- 
tude." Several other testimonies of a similar kind are 
quoted in the Memorandum. 

In the days of Abd-ul-Hamid the '* Dashnakza- 
gan " were closely allied with the Committee of Union 
and Progress, and several of the members of that 
Committee received considerable help and protection 
from the Armenians. Those among them, whose sense 
of gratitude was not entirely destroyed by racial fanati- 
cism, were therefore inclined to oppose the sinister 
schemes of their less scrupulous colleagues. These 
schemes, however, were the natural result of the ten- 
dencies which had gradually gained the upper hand 
in the Committee of Union and Progress, which Com- 
mittee, as is well known, had met with considerable 
opposition in some powerful sections of the Turkish . 
population, and for the sake of removing that opposi- '* 
tion had been driven mto a policy of Pan-Islamism. 



INTRODUCTION. 

This policy had already been proclaimed in a report 
presented to the Congress of the Young Turk party 
held in 191 1, on which occasion it was urged that 
" sooner or later the complete Ottomanisation of all 
Turkish subjects must be carried through, but that it 
was clear that this object could never be obtained by 
persuasion, and that the force of arms would have to be 
resorted to." The nationalities in the said report are 
declared to be a " quantite negligeable " ; ihey migh t 
keep their religion, but not their language . 

The first symptoms of the fact that the advocates of 
the policy of ''thorough " against the Armenians had 
overcome the resistance of their more scrupulous col- 
leagues appeared on the 18/31 March, 1915, when the 
press organ of the " Dashnakzagan " was suppressed. 
On the 12^25 April 235 leading Armenians were arrested 
in Constantinople and deported. The excuse given by 
Talaat Bey to Vartkes, one of the Armenian member s 
of the Ottoman Parliament , shows: (i) that the destruc- 
tion of the Armenians had then been definitely decided 
on ; (2) that no act of disloyalty on the part of the Arme- 
nians could have been adduced for the justification of 
this decision. These are Talaat's words: '' Inthedays 
of our weakness vou put \T)ur knife to our ihroatb v 
raisTng tlie~ ciuestion of reform . For thai reason we 
wFll n?)vv avail oursehes of our present Ta\'Ourable situ- 
atT6nrt0f"the pii r^pOsFoFscatterlng youF^epple to such 
an extent that for th e next fiTty^ y^eaTsT^IPtTTouglrt of 
reforms^vijl be driven out of your heads." Vartkes 
thereupon said: "Then iT is the Intention to continue 
the work of Abd-ul-Hamid ?" Talaat laconically replied, 
"Yes." As pointed out by the author of the Memor- 
andum, the movement for reform referred to by Talaat 
had for its only object the protection of the life and pro- 
perty of the Armenians against the attacks of Kurdish 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

brigands; the reforms had been stipulated for by Art. 
6i of the Treaty of Berlin of 1878 and had been con- 
stantly supported by the Great Powers, including Ger- 
many, which last named power had been specially active 
in that behalf during the year 1913. 

The Constantinople arrests were soon followed by 
the deportations in the provinces and many acts of 
violence. The two members of Parliament, Zohrab and 
Vartkes, were arrested shortly " alter the interview of 
meTatter with Talaat; they were deported and mur- 
dere d. Thenceforth the policy of extermination mani- 
fested itself in all its nakedness. One of the principal 
officials in the Turkish Ministry of Justice said to an 
Armenian : " There is not sufficient ro o m in t his Ernpire 
for yo u and ou rselves ; it would be unpardonable reck- 
lessness^n our part if we ^idnToFuselhis opportunity 
to clear jyou_out of the^ \vay7*^ Some membeFs of the 
Young Turk Committee even showed their hand more 
openly by declaring that " all foreigners must disappear 
^ from Turkey, first the Armenians, then the Greeks, then 
the Jews, and finally the Europeans." One of the 
Ministers of State boasted that he would have attained 
in three weeks what Abd-ul-Hamid failed to accomplish 
in thirty years. 

The excuses brought forward in a number of succes- 
sive official statements made by the Turkish Govern- 
ment for the purpose of stifling the consciences of their 
wilfully credulous German Allies are summed up in the 
Memorandum. The substance of this summary appears 
from the following statement, in which the contrast 
between the accusation and the real facts is pointed 
out under each head : — 

I. One Garo Pasdermadjian, a Russian Armenian, 
is vaguely alleged to have joined certain volunteer corps 



8 



INTRODUCTION, 

in the district of Erzeroum. (All the positiv^e acts 
ascribed to him are connected with the doings of the 
Russian Armenians.) 

2. Two Armenians are alleged to have — on the insti- 
gation of the British authorities — caused a train in Cilicia 
to go off the rails. (In the Turkish official statement 
dated 4th June, 191 5, in which this accusation is made, 
a preliminary observation appears, to the effect that the 
Armenians "of Cilicia had done no act which could 
have disturbed the public peace and order, or could 
have necessitated any repressive measures"). 
/3J The Commanders of English and French war- 
ships are accused of having placed themselves in com- 
munication with Armenians of Adana, Alexandretta, 
and other places on the coast, for the purpose of incit- 
ing them to rebellion. (Xo evidence is produced as to 
this accusation, and it is not even alleged that the at- 
tempt complained of had any success.) 

4. The resistance of the Armenians of Zeitoun to 
the Turkish authorities is referred to. (The events at 
Zeitoun are well known. Turkish Gendarmes had taken 
possession of some Armenian young women; twenty 
young men had thereupon come to blows with the Gen- 
darmes and had barricaded themselves in a monastery 
some distance awav from the town. The town was then 
surrounded bv soldiers and the whole population of 
the town was deported.) 

(5j It is made a complaint that four ** Hintchakists '* 
were involved in a plot against the Turkish Govern- 
ment organized bv the party in opposition. (The plot' 
was started in 191 2, and had been discovered before the 
outbreak of war. The " Hintchakists " were active as 
a revolutionarv Armenian party in the nineties, but in 
IQ13 the Turkish Hintchakists repudiated all connec- 
tion with anv revolutionarv movement; the four Hint- 



/ 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

chakists in question were Egyptian Armenians, and 
had been arrested before the outbreak of war.) 

6. It is stated that Armenians in Vanj and other 
places near the south-eastern corner of Lake Van, had 
risen in arms against the Government. (The events in 
this district are well-known ; there was no premeditated 
resistance; but the violence of the Turkish and Kurdish 
soldiers, which caused many inhabitants to cross the 
Russian frontier, also caused some occasional acts of 
resistance.) 

7. The occupation of the Castle Rock at Shabin- 
Karahissar by 500 i\rmenians is made another ground 
of fcomplaint. (This happened after the town had been 
surrounded by soldiers, who had been summoned on 
account of the excitement caused in the town by the 
execution of a citizen and the threats of deportations.) 

The far-fetched character of the justification of the 
outrages is laid bare by the analysis given above, which 
is a summarised reproduction of the criticism contained 
in the German scholar's Memorandum. The old maxim, 
"Qui s'excuse s'accuse," is particularly appropriate in 
this instance. The deliberate character of the policy of 
extermination is only seen with greater distinctness 
through the flimsy cloak of pretexts which is intended 
to conceal it. The result is described as follows in the 
German Memorandum: " What has happened, is an 
e viction carried _out on the largest^p^si ble scale^^Kct- 
ingij millions of citizens, who by their pertinacity: and 
capacity for jwork have ha^ the^reatest_sh are in _the 
development of the economic progress of the country.'* 

Some persons in Germany seem to think that the 
fate of the Armenians was due to the fact that the con- 
tinued co-existence in the same country of races so 
antagonistic to one another as the Turkish and 
Armenian is impossible in the nature of things; but 



la 



/ 



INTRODUCTION. 

this is most emphatically denied by the author of the 
Memorandum, who asserts that in this instance the 
Government did not even make use of its favourite 
meTFiocI oFinciting one part of the population against 
another part, but garriedout its scheme by the sole 

"^agency of administrative measures. ~ ^ ^ 

The author~ornie~^XTeniorarfdum is no doubt himself 
actuated entirely by humane and high-minded feelings, 
and the very fact of his taking such a very strong atti- 
tude on the Armenian question reveals an amount of 
courage which calls for unqualified admiration ; but he 
evidently knows that manv of his countrymen require 
more tangible inducements for abandoning their cal- 
lous or hostile attitude on the Armenian question. He 
therefore calls attention to the serious loss which not 
only Turkish economic life but also German trade in- 
terests will suffer, if the extermination of the Armenians 
is to be carried to the bitter end. He shows that the 
Turks are absolutelv without any talent for trade and 



industry, and that the legend about the dishonest\'_pf 
the .^^rmenians and Greeks a^sopposedjo^he honesty of 
the 'Furks has no foundation in fact of an\^sort. He 



says that many German merchants are under the impres- 
sion that their customers in Turkey are Turks, while 
in reality they are A rmenians , Greeks^ or J^\vs. The 
Greeks apparently are chiefly concern»'d with export 
trade, while the import trade is mainly in the hands of 
Armenian merchants. The German exporters, who give 
longer credits than others, are of course interested in the 
solvency of their customers, but many of them are ignor- 
ant of their nationality, and — starting from the notion 
that everyone who wears a fez is of Turkish nationality 
— they think that they are dealing with Turks. These 
exporters w'ill have a rude awakening when_the true 
facts become known to them. The Memorandum, by 



I I 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

way of illustration, mentions one firm of importers in 
Constantinople who sell goods to 378 customers residing 
in 42 towns in the interior. The total amount owing 
by these customers at the date when the information 
was given, was nearly £14,000, which sum had to be 
written off as lost, as all the 378 debtors, with their 
employees and with their goods, have vanished; they 
are either dead or wander about as beggars on the 
borders of the Arabian desert. 

During the Balkan war some members of the Young 
Turk Committee tried to_ damage the t m de of the A rme- 
nians and_pf the Greeks by means of a boycott, which 
was puTTnto operatioiTwirh the aid of the Government. 
The rural population, which was in this way compelled 
to make their purchases in Turkish shops only, obtained 
bad goods at increased prices, and returned to the Arme- 
nians and Greeks as soon as the boycott was raised. 

The Memorandum quotes a report, dated 15th August, 
1915, and made by the American Consul at Aleppo, 
which sums up the result of the deportations of the 
Armenians in the following passage: — 

"As go per cent, of the trade into the interior is in 
the hands of the Armenians, the result is that the coun- 
try has to face economic ruin. As the greater part of 
the commercial transactions are credit transactions, hun- 
dreds of business men of high standing, though not 
themselves Armenians, have to face bankruptcy. In 
the evacuated localities, barring a few exceptions, there 
will not be a single mason, smith, tailor, carpenter, 
potter, tentmaker, weaver, shoemaker, jeweller, chemist, 
doctor, lawyer, or any other person engaged in trade 
or in a profession ; the country will, in fact, be in a help- 
less position." 

The author of the Memorandum winds up the section 



12 



INTRODUCTIOX. 

relating to the effect of the deportations on Turkish trade 
with the following passage : — 

" The popularity of the — otherwise unpopular — war 
may have been temporarily increased with the Turkish 
populace by the annihilation and spoliation of the non- 
Mohammedan population, more particularly of the 
Armenians, but partly also of the Syrians, the Greeks, 
the Maronites, and the Jews; but the more thoughtful 
Mohammedans will, on perceiving the net result of the 
damage suffered by their country, regretfully lament 
the economic ruin of Turkey, and come to the conclu- 
sion that the Turkish Government has lost incompar- 
ably more by the internal warfare than it can ever gain 
by external victories." 

As regards the ''moral consequences" of the Arme- 
nian massacres, the German scholar says that they will 
not be properly felt till after the end of the war. He 
means by that, that the civilized world will then wake 
up to the horrors of the deeds which have been perpe- 
trated bv the Turkish Government. He continues : "The 
world will not allow itself to be persuaded by the conten- 
tion that strategical considerations had required the 
deportation of half a million of women and children, 
wholesale conversions to the Mohammedan faith, and 
the annihilation of hundreds of thousands of defence- 
less persons." 

The German scholar's Memorandum, for obvious 
reasons, is very silent as to the moral responsibility 
of the German Government for the deeds which rouse 
his indignation, but several of his countrymen are more 
outspoken. In this respect some of the documents in- 
cluded in this pamphlet are very instructive. 

The German whose experiences are recorded in Docu- 
ment 9 reports that a Turkish official said to him: 
"This time Germany has given these unbelieving swine 



J 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

a lesson which they will not forget." (See below, p. 66.) 
At Arab Pounar a Turkish major addressed him in the fol- 
lowing language : ' 'I and my brother took possession o f a 
young girl at Ras-el-Ain, who had been left on the r oad.j/ 
We are very angry with the Germans for doing such 
Jjifngs." When challenged on this point the Turks 
replied: "The chief of" the General Staff is a German; 
von der Goltz is Commander-in-Chief, and ever so many 
German officers are in our Army. Our Koran does no t ^ 
permit such treat me nt as the Armenians have to suf fer 
now." (See p. 79.) In Nuss Tell a Mohammedan 
mspector made a similar remark, and when asked to 
explain himself he replied: "It is not only I who say 
this; everyone will tell you the same tale." (See p. 79.) 
Document No. 12, which voices the indignation of a 
German teacher in a German secondary school in Tur- 
key, is also of peculiar interest. The following pas- 
sages deserve special notice: — " We deem it our duty 
to call attention to the fact that our educational work will 
lose its moral foundation and the esteem of the natives, 
if the German Government is not in a position to pre- 
vent the brutality with which the wives and children of 
slaughtered Armenians are treat ed in th is place/^_(See 
p. 95.) ^^*~Ta~alim el aleman ' ('that is the teaching 
of the Germans ') says the simple Turk, when asked 
ibout the authors of these measures. The educated 
'oslems are convinced that, though the German people 
lay disapprove of such horrors, the German Govern- 
lent is taking no steps to prevent them, out of consider- 
ition for its Turkish allies. Mohammedans of more 
refined feelings, Turks as well as Arabs, shake their 
heads disapprovingly; they do not even conceal their 
tears, when, in the passage of a convoy of deported 
Armenians through the town, they see Tiirldsh^soldiers 
inflicting blows with he avy sticks on women in advanced 



H 



INTRODUCTION, 

pregnancy or dyrngjDersons who cannot drag themselves 
anyTurther. They cannot imag^ine that their Gove rn- 
ment has ordered these crueUies, ajid asc r i be al 1 excesses y 
to the guih of the. Germans; who during the war are "^ 
Hel^oBeThe teachers of the Turks in all matters. Even 
the ]\Iollahs declare in the MQsqu.es that it was not the 
Sublime Porte but the German o fficers who had ordered 
the ill-treatmen_^ arTd anhThilation of the Armenians. 
The things which in this place have been before every- 
body's eyes during many months must indeed remain 
a blot on Germany's shield of honour in the memory .y 
oTT Jr i e n t a l~~n atTb n s 7^' ^S ee pp. 96-97.) ** Nothing 
w^ould be more humiliating for us than the erection 
of a costly palace at Constantinople commemorating 
German-Turkish friendship, whjj e^we are i inable t o pro - 
tect our fellow-CJiristians from barbaritjes unparalleled 
'even m the blood-stained history of Turk ey." (See 
p.~l"o5.) 

The author of the document considers it "out of the 
question that the German Government, if it were seri- 
ously inclined to stem the tide of destruction even at 
this eleventh hour, could find it impossible to bring 
the Turkish Government to reason." He proceeds as 
follows: "If the Turks are really so well disposed to 
us Germans as people say, then it is surely permissible 
to show them to what an extent they ( ompromise us 
before the whole civilised world, if we, as their Allies, 
are to look on calmly, when hundreds of thousands of 
our fellow-Christians in Turkey are slaughtered, when 
their wives and daughters are violated, and their chil- 
dren brought up in the faith of Islam." (See p. 105.) 
He concludes his report with the following peroration : 
"We mav indignantly repudiate the lies circulated 
in enemv countries accusing tlic (lerman Consuls of 
having organized the massacres. We shall not, how- 

T5 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

ever, destroy the belief of the Turkish people that 
Germany has ordered the Armenian massacres unless 
energetic action be at last taken by German diplomatists 
and German officers." 

More than a year has elapsed since the appeal was 
issued, but the rulers of Germany apparently are more 
inclined to act on Count Reventlow's suggestion, 
according to which "the Armenians least of all deserve 
the pity and the compassionate emotions of the civilized 
world," than to listen to an eye-witness w^hose concep- 
tions as to the true mission of German culture differ so 
widely from the ideas which, to the disgrace and mis- 
fortune of his country, have of late characterised Ger- 
man political aims and German methods of warfare. 



16 



A. THE INVASION OF PERSIA. 



1. LETTERS FROM GERMAN MISSIONARIES 
IN N.W. PERSIA. 

(a) 

The Russians had hardly gone when the Mohamme- 
dans began to rob and to pillage. Window-frames, 
doors, staircases, woodwork, everything was taken away. 
Many Syrians had abandoned the whole of their house- 
hold goods and the stores accumulated for the winter, 
and had fled. Everything fell into the enemy's hands. 
Flight was the best expedient; for those who were left 
behind had a sad fate. Fifteen thousand Syrians 
found protection within the walls of the Mission 
Station, and were provided with bread by the mis- 
sionaries. One lavasch (a thin water biscuit) was 
each person's daily ration. Sickness broke out; the 
death rate mounted up to fifty a day. In the villages 
the Kurds killed nearly everv man who came into their 
power. During six weeks a Turkish soldier guarded 
us. The fact that I was horn in Germany ivas very 
helpful; nobody even touched us* 

* The italics are the Editor's. 
17 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

Am I to report how the Turks had erected gallows 
on the main road outside the town gates and had 
hanged many innocent Syrians and shot others, who- 
previously had been detained a long time in prison? 
I will be silent as to all these horrible things. Like 
many other Armenian soldiers, one was beaten to death 
here outside the gate and buried close to Miss Friede- 
mann's wall, but so carelessly that the dogs were able 
to disinter part of the corpse. One of the hands was 
quite uncovered. I took a few spades and we heaped 
a mound over him. Miss Friedemann's garden, the pro- 
perty of the German Orient Mission, was destroyed by 
the Mohammedans and some of the houses were set 
on fire. We gladly welcomed the first Cossacks, wha 
appeared again after five months. Now we feel once 
more that our life is safe and that it is unnecessary to 
keep the gates locked during the day-time. 

(b) 

The latest reports tell us that 4,000 Syrians and lOQ 
Armenians who were here with the [American] mission- 
aries [in Urmia] died of sickness alone. All the sur- 
rounding villages have been plundered and burnt down, 
more particularly Goktepe, Giilpashan, and Ichar- 
guscha. Two thousand Christians have been massacred 
in Urmia and the surrounding country; many churches 
have been destroyed and burnt; also many houses in 
the town. 

(c) 

Sautchbulak was razed to the ground by the Turks. 
Gallows were erected for the missionaries, but help 
came and prevented the worst. A lady missionary and 
a doctor have died. 

18 



THE IX V AS I OX OF PERSIA. 

(d) 

Jn Haftevan and Salnias 850 corpses were found in 
the wells and cisterns alone, all headless. Why? The 
Commander-in-Chief of the Turkish troops had promised 
a sum of money for every Christian head. The wells are 
drenched with the blood of Christians. From Haftevan 
alone 500 women and girls were handed over to the 
Kurds in Sautchbulak. In Diliman crowds of Chris- 
tians were locked up and forced to become Moham- 
medans. The males were circumcised. Giilpashan, the 
richest village in the district of Urmia, has been razed 
to the ground. The men were killed, the prettv girls 
and women carried off. The same fate befel Babaru. 
Hundreds of women threw thernseK-es^i^nto the^ depths 
of the river when they saw so manv of their sisters 
being violated in the streets in broad daylight; the same 
happened in Miandoab in the district of Sulduz. The 
soldiers who passed through from Sautchbulak carried 
the ^Russian Consul's head _on a bayonet-point into 
Maragha. Forty Syrians were hanged on the gallows 
erected in the Catholic Mission Station at Fath-Ali- 
Han-Gol. The nuns had run i n to _t he street and prayed 
for pity, but in vain. In Salmas in Khosrova their 
whole station has been destroyed; the nuns have fled. 
Maragha is destroyed. In Tabriz things are not quite 
so bad; 1,175 Christians were massacred in Salmas, 
2,000 in the district of Urmia. Of those who had 
taken refuge with the missionaries j., 100 died of 
typ hus. The whole number of the refugees, including 
those from Tergavar, \'an, and Azerbaijan, is esti- 
mated at 300,000. In Etchmiadzin a committee was 
formed for the purpose of taking care of the poor people. 
Over 500 c hildren were found on the roads over which 
the refugees had come, some only nine days old. Alto- 
gether over 3,000 orphans wefeTolt^cIed at Etchmiadzin. 

19 



B. THE SIX ARMENIAN VILAYETS. 



2. VAN AFTER THE TURKISH RETREAT. 

Letter from Herr Sporri, of the German Mission 
at \'an, published in the German Journal, 
*' Sonnenaufgang," October, 1915. 



There lies Artamid before us, adorned by its charming 
gardens; but how does the village look? The greater 
part of it is nothing now but a heap of ruins. We talked 
there with three of our former orphan protegees, who 
had had fearful experiences during the recent events. 
We rode on across the mountain of Artamid. Even in 
time of peace one crosses the pass with one's heart in 
one's mouth, because the Kurds ply their robber trade 
there. Now it is all uncannily still. Our glance swept 
over the magnificent valley of Haiotz-Tzor. There lay 
Antananz before us, now utterly destroyed like the rest. 
We gave shelter, at the time, to people from Anta- 
nanz who had managed to escape. Further on in the 
magnificent green landscape lay Vostan. At first sight 
one might call it a paradise, but during these latter days 
it has also been a hell. What rivers of blood must have 
flowed there; it was one of the chief strongholds of the 
armed Kurds. At the foot of the mountain we came to 
Angegh. There again there were many houses destroyed. 
We found here a young woman who, after many years 
of widowhood, had married a native of the village. 
Things had been going well with her; now her hus- 



21 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

band, too, was slaughtered. One hundred and thirty 
people are said to have been murderea tnus. VvepitctTed 
our camp here in face of the blackened ruins. Straight 
in front of us stood an " amrodz, " a tower built of cakes 
of dung — a common enough sight in these parts. We 
were told that the Kurds had burnt the corpses of the 
slaughtered Armenians in it. Horrible! And yet that 
is at least better than if the corpses of the slain, as has 
happened in other places, are allowed to lie for an in- 
definite period unburied, so that they are devoured by 
dogs and poison the air. There we were met by some 
soldiers; they were Armenian "Volunteers" who had 
come from Russia and were now fighting on the side 
of the Russians for the liberation of their Haiasdan. 
They were coming now from the neighbourhood of 
Bitlis, where heavy fighting was in progress. They 
had brought some sick back to the town, and proposed 
to rest here awhile. After that we rode on to Ten, where 
people we already knew came out to meet us from the 
village and informed us of what had happened there. 
There, too, the scenes of our former activity, the school 
and the church, lay in ruins, and many dwelling houses 
as well. The man who used to put us up was also among 
the slain ; his widow is still quite distraught. Here about 
150 are said to have been murdered. There were so 
many orphans in the place, they said to us : — should we 
now be inclined to take charge of any again ? We were 
unable to give them any definite answer. As we rode 
on and on over the mountains, the splendid air did us 
much good and we thanked God for it, for little by little 
we have come to be in sore need of recuperation. We 
had a wonderful view from the mountain heights, but 
everywhere in the villages one sees blackened and ruined 
houses. 



22 



3. MOUSH. 

Statement by a German Eye-witness of Occurrences 
at Moush. Communicated by the American 
Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief. 

Towards the end of October (1914), when the Turkish 
war bee^an, the Turkish officials started to take every- 
thing they needed for the war from the Armenians. 
Their 'gTRjds, ilreir money, all waY couFscated. LateF 
on, every Turk was free to go to an Arrnenian shop 
and take out what he needed or thought he would like to 
have. Only a tenth perhaps was really for the war, the 
rest was pure robbery. It was necessary to have food, 
etc., carried to the front, on the Caucasian frontier. For 
this purpose the CfOvernment sent out about 300 old 
Armenian men, many cripples amongst them, and boys 
not more than twelve years old, to carry the goods — a 
three weeks' journey from Moush to the Russian fron- 
tier. As every individual Armenian was robbed of every- 
thing he ever had, these poor people soon died of hunger 
and cold on the way. They had no clothes at all, for 
even these were stolen on the way. If out of these 300 
Armenians thirty or forty returned, it was a marvel; the 
rest were either beaten to death or died from the causes 
stated above. 

The winter was most severe in Moush ; the gendarmes 
were sent to levy high taxes, and as the Armenians had 



23 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

already given everything to the Turlvs, and were there- 
fore powerless to pay these enormous taxes, t hey wer e 
beaten to death. The Armenians never defended them- 
seTves~"excepr^^hen they saw the gendarmes ill-treating 
their wives and children, and the result in such cases 
was that the whole village was burnt down, merely 
because a few Armenians had tried to protect their 
families. 

Toward the middle of April we heard rumours that 
there were great disturbances in Van. We have heard 
statements both from Turks and from Armenians, and 
as these reports agree in every respect, it is quite plain 
that there is some truth in them. They state that the 
Ottoman Government sent orders that all iVrmenians 
were to give up their arms, which the Armenians refused 
to do on the ground that thc)^ required their arms in 
case of necessity. This caused a regular massacre. All 
villages inhabited by Armenians were burnt down. The 
Turks boasted of having now got rid of all the Arme- 
nians. I heard it from the officers myself, how th ey 
revelled in the thought that the Armenians had been 
got rid of. 

Thus the winter passed, with things happening every 
day more terrible than one can possibly describe. We 
then heard that massacres had started in Bitlis. In 
Moush everything was being prepared for one, when 
the Russians arrived at Liz, which is about 14 to 16 
hours* journey from Moush. This occupied the atten- 
tion of the Turks, so that the massacre was put off for 
the time being. Hardly had the Russians left Liz, 
however, when all the districts inhabited by Armenians 
were pillaged and destroyed. 

This was- in the month of May. At the beginning 
of June, we heard that the whole Armenian population 
of Bitlis had been got rid of. It was at this time that 



24 



THE SIX ARMENIAN VILAYETS, 

we received news that the American missionary, Dr. 
Knapp, had been wounded in an Armenian house and 
that the Turkish Government had sent him to Diyar- 
bekir. The very first night in Diyarbekir he died, and 
the Government explained his death as a result of having 
overeaten, which of course nobody believed. 

When there was no one left in Bitlis to massacre, their 
attention was diverted to Moush. Cruelties had already 
been committed, but so far not too publicly; now% how- 
ever, they started to shoot peopl e down without any 
cause, and beat them to^ea tlT^s imply for the pleasu re 
of doing so. In AlousTiitself, which is a big town, there 
are 25,ck)0 Armenians; in the neighbourhood there are 
300 villages, each containing about 500 houses. In all 
these not a single male Armenian is now to be seen, 
and hardly a woman either, except for a few here and 
there. 

In the first week of Julv 20,000 soldiers arrived from 
Constantinople by way of Harpout with munitions and 
eleven guns, and laid siege to Moush. As a matter of 
fact, the town had already been beleaguered since the 
middle of June. At this stage the Mutessarif gave orders 
that we should leave the tow n and go to Harpout. We 
pleaded with him to let us stay, for w^e had in our charge 
all the orphans and patients; but he was angry, and 
threatened to remove us by force if we did not do as 
instructed. As we both fell sick, however, we were 
allowed to remain at Moush. I received permission, in 
the event of our leaving Moush, to take the Armenians 
of our orphanage with us; but when we asked for assur- 
ances of their safety, his only reply was: "You can 
take them with you, but being Arm enians^ their heads 
may and will be cut o ff on tjie way/' 
"^ On the loth Julv Moush was bombarded for several 
hours, on the pretext that some Armenians had tried 



25 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

to escape. I went to see the Mutessarif, and asked him 
to protect our buildings. His reply was : "It serves you 
right for staying, instead of leaving as instructed. The 
guns are here to make an end of Moush. Take refuge 
with the Turks." This, of course, was impossible, as 
we could not leave our charges. Next day a new order 
was promulgated for the expulsion of the Armenians, 
^nd three days' grace was given them to make ready. 
They were told to register themselves at the Govern- 
ment Building before they left. Their families could 
remain, but their property and their money were to be 
confiscated. The Armenians were unable to go, for they 
had no money to defray the journey, and they preferred 
to die in their houses rather than be separated from their 
families and endure a lingering death on the road. 

As stated above, three days' grace was given to the 
Armenians, but two hours had scarcely elapsed when 
the soldiers began breaking into the houses, arresting 
the inmates and throwing them into prison. The guns 
began to fire, and thus the people were effectually pre- 
vented from registering themselves at the Government 
Building. We all had to take refuge in the cellar for 
fear of our orphanage catching fire. It was heartrending 
to hear the cries of the people and children who were 
being burnt to death in their houses. The soldiers took 
great delight in hearing them, and when people who 
were out in the street during the bombardment fell dead, 
the soldiers merely laughed at them. 

The survivors were sent to Ourfa (there were none left 
but sick women and children); I went to the Mutessarif 
and begged him to have mercy on the children at least, 
but in vain. He replied that the Armernan^ children 
must perish wiTfTtheir nation rTArToilr "people were taken 
fronTouFTTos'pitai and oFphanage; they left us three 
female servants. Under these atrocious circumstances 

/ 26 



THE SIX ARMENIAN VILAYETS, 

Moush was burnt to the ground. Every office r boasted 

of the number he had personally massacred as his share 
-■ ^ — ■ — i* - 

in ridding Turkey of the Armenian race. 

We left for Harpout. Harpout has become the ceme- 
tery of the Armenians; from all directions they have been 
brought to Harpout to be buried. There they lie, and 
the dogs and the vultures devour their bodies. Xow and 
then some man throws some earth over the bodies. In -v 
Harpout and Mezre the people have had to endure terri- I 
ble tortures. They have had their eye-brows plucked i 
out, their breasts cut off, their nails torn off; their tor- \ 
turers hew off their feet or else hammer nails into them 
just as they do in shoeing horses. This is all done at 
night time, and in order that the people mav not hear 
their screams and know of their agony, soldiers are 
stationed round the prisons, beating drums and blow- 
ing whistles. It is needless to relate that many died 
of these tortures. When they die, the soldiers cry : 
** Xow let your Christ help you." 

One old priest was tortured so cruelly to extract a 
confession that, believing that the torture would cease 
and that he would be left alone if he did it, he cried 
out in his desperation : " We are revolutionists." He 
expected his tortures to cease, but on the contrary the 
soldiers cried: " What further do we seek? We have 
il here from his own lips." And instead of picking 
their victims as they did before, the officials had all 
the Armenians tortured without sparing a soul. 

Early in July 2,000 Armenian soldiers were ordered 
to leave for Aleppo to build roads. The people of Har- 
pout were terrified on hearing this, and a panic started 
in the town. The \'ali sent for the (ierman missionary, 
Mr. Ehemann, and begged him to Cjuiet tiie people, re- 
peating over and over again that no harm whatever would 

27 



GJcILUA.yy, TURKF.Y AND ARMENIA, 

befall these soldiers. Mr. Ehemann took the Vali's word 
and quieted the people. But they had scarcely left when 
we heard that they had all been murdered and thrown 
into a cave. Just a few iTianaged^tcTescape, arTdTwe got 
the reports from them. Jt was useless to protest to the 
Vali. The American Consul at Harpout protested 
several times, but the Vali makes no account of him, 
and treats him in a most shameful manner. A few days 
later another 2,000 Armenian soldiers were despatched 
via Diyarbekir, and, in order to hinder them the more 
surely from escaping, they were left to starve on tne 
way, so that they had no strength left in them to flee. 
Hie Kurds were given notice that the Armenians were 
on the way, and the Kurdish women came with their 
butcher's knives to help the men. In Mezre a public 
brothel was erected for the Turks, a nd all the beautiful 
Armenian girls and women vere placed there . At nig'ht 
t he 1 u rks were allowed free entra nce. The permission 
for tlie Protestant and Latholic Armenians to be ex- 
empted from deportation oniv arrived after their depor- 
tation had taken place. The Government wanted to 
force the few- remaining Armenians to accept the Moham- 
medan faith. A few did so in order to save their wives 
and children from the terrible sufferings already wit- 
nessed in the case of others. The people begged us to 
leave for Constantinople and obtain some security for 
them. On our Avav to Constantinople we only encoun- 
tered old women. Xo voung women or girls were to be 
sef'n. 

Already by November* we had known that there would 
be a massacre. The Mutessarif of INIoush, who was a 
very intimate friend of Enver Pasha, declared quite 
openly that they VvOuld massacre the Armenians at the 



* I0T4- 

2^ 



THE SIX ARMENIAN VILAYETS. 

first opportune moment jind exterminate the whole race. 
BeforelEe Russians arrived they intended first to butcher 
the Armenians, and then fight the Russians afterwards. 
Towards the beginning of April, in the presence of a 
Major Lange and several other high officials, including 
the American and German Consuls, Kkrrn [^ev quite 
openlv declared the Government's intention of exter- 
mi nating the Armenian ra ce, ^j j^ these d etails plainly 
sh ow that the massacre was delibera tely plann ed. 

In a few villages destitute women come begging, 
naked and sick, for alms and protection. \\> are not 
allowed to give them anything, we -ire not allov/ed to 
take them in, in fact we are forbidden to do anvthing 
for them, and they die outside. If onlv permission 
could be obtained from the autiiorities to help them ! 
If we cannot endure the sight of these poor people's 
sufferings, what must it be like for tlie sufferers them- 
selves ? 

It is a storv written in blood. Two old missionaries 
and a younger lady (an American) were sent awav from 
Mardin. They were treated just lik'e prisoners, dogged 
continually by the gendarmes, and were brought in tJiis 
fashion to Sivas. For missionaries of that age a jour:iev 
of this kind in the present circumstances was obviousiv 
a terrible hardship. 



2(J 



4. ERZINDJAN. 

Statement by two Danish Red Gross Nurses, formerly 
in the service of the German Military Mission 
at Erzeroum.* Gommunicated by a Swiss 
Gentleman of Geneva. 



In March, 1915, we learnt through an Armenian 
doctor, who died later on of typhoid, that the Turkish 
Government was preparing for a massacre on a grand 
scale. He begged us to find out from General Passelt 
w'hether the rumour was true. We heard afterwards 
that the General (a gallant officer) had his own fears of 
it, and asked, for that reason, to be relieved of his post. 
. We fell sick of typhoid and .... in con- 
sequence of a number of changes in the hospital staff 
. . . . we were obliged to leave Erzeroum. Through 
the good offices of the German Consul at Erzeroum, 
who also possessed the confidence of the Armenians, 
we were engaged by the Red Cross at Erzindjan, and 
worked there seven w'eeks. 

At the beginning of June, the head of the Red Cross 
Mission at Erzifidjan, Staff-Surgeon A., told us that the 
Armenians had revolted at Van, that measures had been 



* They were ;it work in the German hospital at Erzeroum from 
October, 1014, to April, 1915. — Editor. 

30 



THE SIX ARM EX I AN VILAYETS. 

taken against them which would be put into general 
execution, and that the whole Armenian population of 
Erzindjan and the neighbourhood would be transported 
to Mesopotamia, where it would no longer find itself 
in a majority. There w^as, however, to be no massacre, 
and measures were to be taken to feed the exiles and to 
secure their personal safety by a military escort. Wagons 
loaded with arms and bombs were reported, he said, to 
have been discovered at Erzindjan, and many arrests 
were to be made. The Red Cross staff were forbidden 
to have any relations with the exiles, and prohibited any 
excursions on foot or horseback beyond a certain radius. 

After that, several days' grace was given to the popu- 
lation of Erzindjan for the sale of their property, which 
was naturally realised at ludicrous prices. In the first 
week of June,t the first convoy started; the rich people 
were allowed to hire carriages. They were to go to 
Harpout. The three succeeding days, further deporta- 
tions followed;! many children were taken charge of 
by Moslem families; later on, the authorities decided 
that these children must go into exile as well. 

The families of the Armenians employed in our hos- 
pital had to go with the rest, including a woman who 
was ill. A protest from Dr. Xeukirch, who was attend- 
ing her, had no effect except to postpone her departure 
two days. A soldier attached to our slaff as cobbler said 
to Sister B.*: *T am now forty-six years old, and yet I 



t 7th June : All^emcine Missions-Zeitschrift. November, iQ^S- 
X Amounting- to about 20,000 — 25,000 people in all : Allii>^mcine 
MissioHs-ZcitscJiriff. November, igis. 

* One of the two authors of the present statement, which has 
been drafted in the first person by the other witness, bu* repre- 
sents the experience of both. The Editor is in possession of the 
drafter's name, but does not know the identity of Sister B.. Dr. 
A., or Mr. G. — Editor, 



■;i 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

am taken for military service, although I have paid 
my exemption-tax regularly every year. I have never 
done anything against the Government, and now they 
are taking from me my whole family, my seventy-year- 
old mother, my wife and five children, and I do not know 
where they are going." He was especially affected by 
the thought of his little daughter, a year and a half old; 
" She is so sweet. She has such pretty eves " ; he wept 
like a child. The next dav he came back; "I know 
the truth. They are all dead." And it was onlv too 
true. Our Turkish cook came to us crying, and told 
us how the Kurds had attacked the unhappy convov at 
Kamakh Boghaz,t had pillaged it completely, and had 
killed a great number of the exiles. This must have 
been the 14th June. 

Two young Armenian teachers, educated at the Col- 
lege of Harpout, whose lives were spared, related that 
the convoy had been caught under a cross-fire bv the 
Kurds en the flanks and the Turkish irregulars in the 
rear. They had thrown themselves flat on the ground 
and pretended to be dead; afterwards they succeeded in 
finding their way back to Erzindjan by circuitous paths, 
bribing some Kurds whom they met on the wav. One 
of them had with her her fiance in woman's clothes. 
He had been shielded by a Turkish class-mate. When 
they reached Erzindjan a gendarme tried to abduct the 
girl, and her fiance interfered. He was killed, and the 
girls were carried off to Turkish houses, where they were 
treated kindly, but had pressure put upon them to change 
their religion. They conveyed this news to us through 
a young doctor who attended some Armenian patients in 



t A defile. 12 hours' journey from Erzindjan, where the 
iCunhrates flows through a narrow gorg-e between two walls of 
rock. 



.12 



THE SIX ARM EX 1 AX VILAVETS. 

our hospital, and was thereby enabled to get into touch 
with us; he brought us an appeal from them to take them 
with us to Harpout. If only they had poison, thev said, 
they would poison themselves. I'hev had no informa- 
tion whatever as to ihe fate of their companions. 

The day after,i Friday, the iith June, a party of 
regular troops (belonging to the 86th Cavalry Brigade) 
were sent out "to keep the Kurds in order." 

We heard subsequently from these soldiers how the 
defenceless Armenians had bee n massa cred to the last 
oim 1 he butchery had taken tour hours. The women 
tlTrew themselves on their knees, thev had thrown their 
children into the Euphrates, and so on.* " It was ho r- 
rible,'' said a nice-looking young soldier ; " I c ould not 
fire, I onl y pretended ." For that matte r, we have of ten 
heard Tur ks express their disapproxal and their pity . 
' The soldiers told us that there were ox-carls all ready 
to carry the corpses to the river and remove everv trace 
of the massacre. t 

Next dav there was a regular battue through the corn- 
fields. (The corn was then standing, and manv Arme- 
nians held hidden in it.) 



t i.e., after the ricpartiire of the h\st convoys of exrle.s from 
Erzindjan doth June), not after the narrators were informed of 
the massacres by their cook and by the two Armenian firirls. The 
ppssaftes about the cobbler, the cook, and the two g'irls are evi- 
dently in parenthesis, and interrupt the sequence of the narra- 
tive. — Editor. 

* The further dft-'ils are j^ivt n in the Alli^rtyu ir.c M>ssiun.<' 
Z'.'it'^clirift . November, 1915 : "When we exclaimed in horror 
'So you fire on women and children I' the soldiers answered 
* What could we do? It was our orders,' One of them .Klded 
*It WPS a heart-breaking' siffht. For that matter, I did not 
shoot.' "-Editor. 

t On the e\enin;f of the nth. we saw soldiers retrrninr to 
town laden wirh loot. We heard from both Turks .'»nd Arn.enijins 
that children's corpses were strewn along: the road. 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

From that time on, convoys of exiles were continually 
arriving, all on their way to the slaughter; we have no 
doubt about their fate, after the unanimous testimony 
which we have received from many different quarters. 
Later, our Greek driver told us that diejdcdmsji^dd^ 
hands_t ied behind their back s, and were thrown down 
Tr om the cliffs into _the nver.'^^IlilslTrelhog'was'e^ 
when the numbers were too great to dispose of them in 
any other fashion. It was also easier work for the mur- 
derers. Sister B. and I, of course, began at once to 
think what we could do, and w^e decided to travel with 
one of these convoys to Harpout. We did not know yet 
that the massacre on the road had been ordered by the 
Government, and we also thought that we could check 
the brutality of the gendarmes and stave ofT the assaults 
of the Kurds, since we speak Kurdish and have some 
influence over the tribesmen.. 

We then telegraphed to the Consul at Erzeroum, tell- 
ing him that we had been dismissed from the hospital, 
and urging him, in the interests of Germany, to come 
to Erzindjan. He wired back: "Impossible to leave 
my post. Wait for Austrians, who are due to pass here 
the 22nd June." 

On the evening of the 17th June, we went out for a 
walk with Mr. C., the druggist of the Red Cross 
Staff. He was as much horrified as we were at the 
cruelties that were being perpetrated. . . . On 
our walk we met a gendarme, who told us that, ten 
minutes' distance away, a large convoy of exiles from 
Baibourt had halted. He narrated to us, with appalling 
vividness, how one by one the^menhad been massacred 
and cast into the depths of the gorge.t ~^ 



X Every day ten or twelve m^n had boon Villed and thrown into 
the ravines. — AU^cmeiyic Missions-Zeitschrift. 



THE SIX ARMENIAN VILAYETS, 

He told how, at each village, t he women had been 
violated; how he himself had desired to take a girl, but 
had been told that already she was no longer a maid; 
how children had had their brains battered out when 



th ey cried o r h indered the maj ch. *' There were the 
naked bodies of three girls; I buried them to do a good 
deed," was the remark with which he concluded his 
story. 

The following morning, at a very earlv hour, we heard 
the procession of exiles passing in front of our house, 
along the high road leading in to Erzindjan. We followed 
them and kept u|} with them as far as the to'wn, about 
an hour's walk. Mr. d. came with us. It was a very 
large gang — only two or three of them men, all the rest 
women and children. Manv of the women looked de- 
mented. They cried out: '' Spare u s, we will bec ome 
Moslems or Germans or whatever you will ; onlv spare 
us. \\^e are being taken to Kamakh Boghaz to have our 
throats cut, and they made an expressne gesture. 
Others~T<ept silence, and marched patientlv on with a 
few bundles on their backs and their children in their 
arms. Others begged us to save their children. Many 
Turks arrived on the scene to carry off children and girls, 
with or without their parents' consent. There was no 
time for reflection, for tlie crowd was being mo\rd f*n 
continually by the mounted gendarmes brandishing their 
whips. On the outskirts of the town, the road lo Kamrkh 
Boghaz branches of!" from the main highway. At this 
point the scene turned into a regular slave market ; for 
our part, we took a family of six children, from three to 
fourteen years old, who clutched hold of us, and another 
little girl as well. \\^^ entrusted the latter to our Turkish 
cook, who was on the spot. She wanted to take the child 
to the kitchen of Dr. A.'s private house, and keep her 
there until we could come and fetch her; but the doctor's 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

adjutant, Riza Bey, gave the woman a beating and 
threw the child out into the street. Meanwhile, with 
cries of agony, the gang of sufferers continued its 
march, while we returned to the hospital with our six 
ciiildren. Dr. P^, gave us permission to keep them in 
our room until we had packed our belongings; they were 
given food and soon became calmer. " Now we are 
saved," they had cried when we took them. They 
refused to let go of our hands. The smallest, the son 
oi a rich citizen of Baibourt, lay huddled up in his 
mother's cloak ; his face was swollen with crying and 
he seemed inconsolable. Once he rushed to the window 
and pointed to a gendarme: "That's the man who 
killed my father." The children handed over to us 
their money, 475 piastres (about £4), which their parents 
had given them with the idea that the children would 
not be searched. 

We then rode into the town to obtain permission for 
these children to travel with us. We were told that the 
high authorities were in session to decide the fate of the 
convoy which had just arrived. Nevertheless, Sister B. 
succeeded in getting word with someone she knew, who 
gave her the authorisation to take the children with her, 
and offered to give them false names in the passport. 
This satisfied us, and, after returning to the hospital, 
we left the same e^•ening with baggage and children and 
all, and installed ourselves in a hotel at Erzindjan. The 
Turkish orderlies at the hospital were very friendly, and 
said : " You have done a good deed in taking these chil- 
dren." We could get nothing but one small room for the 
eight of us. During the night there was a frightful 
knocking at our door, and we were asked whether there 
were two German ladies in the room. Then all became 
quiet again, to the great relief of our little ones. Their 
first question had been, would we prevent them from 

36 



THE SIX AR2IE.\IAX VILAYETS, 

being made Mohammedans? And was our cross (the 
nurses' Red Cross) the same as theirs? After that they 
were comforted. We left them in the room, and went 
ourselves to take our tea in the hotel cafe. We noticed 
that some discharged hospital patients of ours, who had 
always shown themselves full of gratitude towards us, 
behaved as if thcv no longer recognised us. The pro- 
prietor of the hotel began to hold forth, and everyone 
listened to what he was saying: "The death of these 
women and children has been decreed at Constantin- 
ople." The Hodja (Turkish priest) of our hospital came 
in, too, and said to us, among other things: " If God 
has no pity on them, why must you have pity ? The 
Armenians have committed atrocities at Van. That hap- 
pened because their religion is ekzik (inferior). 'F^he 
Moslems should not have followed their example, but 
should have carried out the massacre with greater 
humanity." We always gave the same answer — that 
they ought to discover the guilty and do justice upon 
them, but that the massacre of women and children was, 
and always will remain, a crime. 

Then we went to the Mutessarif himself, with whom 
we had not succeeded in obtaining an interview before. 
The man looked like the devil incarnate, and his beha- 
viour bore out his appearance. In a bellowing voice 
he shouted at us : " Women have no business to meddle 
with politics, but ought to respect the Government!" 
We told him that we should have acted in precisely the 
same way if the victims liad been Mohammedans, and 
that politics had nothing to do with our conduct. He 
answered that we had been expelled from the hospital, 
and that we should i^vX the same treatment from him; 
that he would not stand us, and that he would certainly 
not permit us to go to Harpout to fetch our belongings, 
but would send us to Sivas. Worst of all, he forbade 



37 



GEIUIANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

us to take the children away, and at once sent a gen- 
darme to carry them off from our room. 

On our way back to the hotel we actually met them, 
but they were hurried past us so quickly that we had 
not even a chance to return them their money. After- 
wards we asked Dr. Lindenberg to see that this money 
was restored to them ; but, to find out where they were, 
he had to make enquiries of a Turkish officer, and just 
at the moment of our departure, when we had been told 
that they had already been killed, and when we had no 
longer any chance ot leaking aTurther search for them, 
the aforementioned Riza Bey came and asked us for this 
money, on the ground that he wanted to return it to the 
children ! We had already decided to spend it on reliev- 
ing other Armenians. 

At Erzindjan we were now looked askance at. They 
would no longer let us stay at the hotel, but took us to 
a deserted Armenian house. The whole of this exten- 
sive quarter of the town seemed dead. People came and 
went at will to loot the contents of the houses; in some 
of the houses the families of Moslem refugees were 
already installed. We had now a roof over our heads, 
but no one would go to get us food. How^ever, we man- 
aged to send a note to Dr. A., who kindly allowed us 
to return to the hospital. The following day the Mutes- 
sarif sent a springless baggage cart, in which we were 
to do the seven days' journey to Sivas. We gave him 
to understand that we would not have the conveyance, 
and, upon the representations of Dr. A., they sent us 
a travelling carriage, with the threat to have us arrested 
if we did not start at once. This was on Monday, the 
2 1 St June, and we should have liked to wait for the 
Austrians, who were due to arrive on the Tuesday morn- 
ing, and continue the journey in their company; but 
Dr. A. declared that he could no longer give us pro- 

38 



THE SIX ARMEXIAX VILAYETS. 

tection, and so we started out. Dr. Lindenberg- did us 
the kindness of escorting us as far as Rifahia.* During 
the first days of our journey we saw fi\e corpses. One 
was a woman's, and still had clothes on; the others 
were naked, one of them headless. There were two 
Turkish officers on the road with us who were really 
Armenians, as we were told by the gendarme attached 
to us. They preserved their incognito towards us, and 
maintained a very great reserve, but alwavs took care 
not to get separated from us. On the fourth day they 
did not put in an appearance. \\'lien we enquired after 
them, we were given to understand that the less we con- 
cerned ourselves about them the betKT it would be for 
us. On the road, we broke our journev near a Greek 
village. A savage-looking man was standing b\' the 
roadside. He began to talk with us, and told us he was 
stationed there to kill all the .Arm enians that passed, aji d 
th at he had already ki lled 250. He <'xplained that they 
all deserved their fate, for they were all Anarchists — 
not Liberals or Socialists, but Anarchists. He told the- 
gendarmes that l]e _had recei\ x-d orders^ by tele jp hone to 
kill our t wo tra\clling companjons . So these two men 
with their ArmenTarf drivers must have perished there* 
We could not restrain ourselves from arguing with this 
assassin, but when he went ini our (ireek driver warned 
us: "Don't sav a word, if xou do . . ." — and he 
made the gesture of taking aim. The rumour had , in 
fact, got^aj iout that we were .A rmenians, whicii was as 
^ood a~s to sav condemned to death. 



One davwe~~met a convoy of exiles, who had said 
good-bvr to their prospe rous \i I lag<\s and were ai (hat 
moment on their way to Kamakh Iktghaz. \\> had to 
draw up a long time b\' the roadside while ilie\ marched 



* This was not the route followed b\ the convoys of exiles. 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

past. The scene will never be forgotten by either of us : 
a very small number of elderly men, a large number of 
women — vigorous figures with energetic features — a 
crowd of pretty children, some of them fair and blue- 
eyed, one little girl smiling at the strangeness of all she 
was seeing, but on all the other faces the solemnity of 
death. There was no noise; it was all quiet, and they 
marched along in an orderly way, the children generally 
riding on the ox-carts; and so they passed, some of them 
greeting us on the way — all these poor people, who are 
now standing at the throne of God, and w hose cry goes 
up before Him. An old woman was made -to get down 
from her donkey — she could no longer keep the saddle. 
Was she killed on the spot? Our hearts had become as 
cold as ice. 

The gendarme attached to us told us then that he had 
escorted a convoy of 3,000 women and children from 
Mamahatoun (near Erzeroum) to Kamakh Boghaz. 
^'Hep gildi, bildi," he said: ''All_gone, all, dead. U 
We asked him : " Why condemn them to this frightful 
torment ; why not kill them in their villages ?" Answer : 
"It is best as it is. They ought to be made to suffer; 
and, besides, there would be no place left for us Moslems 
with all these corpses about. They will make a stench !" 

We spent a night at Enderessi, one day's journey from 
Shabin Kara-Hissar. As usual, we had been given for 
our lodging an empty Armenian house. On the wall 
there was a pencil scrawl in Turkish: '^ Ouv__d^^i^\\\ng 
is on the mountains, we have no longer any need of a 



roof to cm-er us; we have already drained the bitter cup 
of death, we have no more need of a judge." 

The ground floor rooms of the house were still ten- 
anted by the women and children. The gendarmes told 
us that they would be exiled next morning, but they did 
not know that yet ; they did not know what had become 



40 



THE SIX ARMEXIAX VILAVETS. 

of the men of the house; they were restless, but not vet 
desperate. v 

Just after I had gone to sleep, I was awakened hv shots 
in our immediate neighbourhood. The reports followed 
one another rapidly, and I distinctlv heard the words of 
command. I realised at once what was happening, and 
actually experienced a feeling of relief at the idea that 
these poor creatures were now bevond the reach of 
human cruelty. 

Next morning our people told us that ten .\rmenians 
had been shot — that was the firing that we had heard — 
and that the Turkish civilians of the place were now 
being sent out to chase the fugitives. Indeed, we saw 
them starting off on horseback with guns. At the road- 
side were two armed men standing under a tree and 
dividing between them the clothes of a dead Armenian. 
They were just holding up a pair of blue cloth trousers. 
We passed a place covered with clotted blood, though 
the corpses had been removed. It was the 250 road- 
making soldiers, of whom our gendarme had told us. 

Once we met a large number of (hese labourers, who 
had so far been allowed to do their work in peace. Thev 
had been sorted into three gangs — Moslems, dreeks and 
Armenians. There were several officers with the latter. 
Our young Hassan exclaimed: "They are all going to 
be butchered." We continued our journey, and the 
road mounted a hill. Then our dri\er pointed with his 
whip towards the valley, and we saw that the Armenian 
gang was being made to stand out on the high road. 
There were about 400 of them, and they were being made 
to line up on the edge of a slope. We know what hap- 
pened after that. 

Two davs before we reached Si\as, we again saw the 
same sight. The soldiers' bayonets glittered in the sun. 



4> 



GER2IANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

At another place there were ten gendarmes shooting 
them down, while Turkish workmen were finishing off 
the victims with knives and stones. Here ten Armenians 
had succeeded in getting away. 

Later on, in the Mission Hospital at Sivas, we carae 
iicross one of the men who had escaped. He told us that 
about loo Armenians had been slaughtered there. Our 
informant himself had received a terrible wound in the 
nape of the neck and had fainted. Afterwards he had 
recovered consciousness and had dragged himself in two 
■days to Sivas. 

Twelve hours' distance from Sivas, w-e spent the night 
in a government building. For hours a gendarme, sit- 
ting in front of our door, crooned to himself over and 
over again: " Ermenleri hep kesdiler — the Armenians 
have all been killed!" In the next room they w^ere talk- 
ing on the telephone. We made out that they were 
giving instructions as to how the Armenians were to 
be arrested. They were talking chiefly about a certain 
•Ohannes, whom they had not succeeded in finding yet. 

One night we slept in an Armenian house where the 
w^omen had just heard that the men of the family had 
been condemned to death. It was frightful to hear their 
•cries of anguish. "Cannot your Emperor help us?" 
they cried. The gendarme saw the despair on our faces, 
and said : " Their crying bothers you ; I will forbid them 
lo crv." However, he let himself be mollihed. He had 
taken particular pleasure in pointing out to us all the 
horrors that we encountered, and he said to young 
Hassan : " First we kill the Armenians, then the Greeks, 
then the Kurds." He would certainly have been de- 
lighted to add : " And then the foreigners !" Our Greek 
driver was the victim of a still more ghastly joke : 
" Look, down there in the ditch; there are Greeks there 
too!" 



42 



THE SIX ARM EX I AX VILAYETS. 

At last we reached Si\as. We had to wait an hour 
in front of the Government Building before the exam- 
ination of our papers was completed and we were given 
permission to go to the Americans. There, too, all was 
trouble and sorrow. 

On the I St July we left Sivas, and reached Kaisaria 
on the 4th. AVe had been given permission to go to 
Talas, after depositing our baggage at the Jesuit School; 
but when we wanted to go on from Kaisaria, we were 
refused leave and taken back to the Jesuit School, where 
a gendarme was posted in front of our door. However, 
the American Missionaries succeeded in getting us set 
at liberty. 

We then returned to Talas, where we passed several 
days full of commotion, for there, as well as at Kaisaria, 
there were many arrests being made. The poor Arme- 
nians never knew what the morrow would bring, and 
then came the terrifving news that all Armenians had 
been cleared out of Sivas. What happened there and in 
the villages of the surrounding districts will be reported 
by the American Mission. 

When we discovered that thev meant to keep us there 
— for they had prevented us from joining the Austrians 
for the journey — we telegraphed to the German Em- 
bassv, and so obtained permission to start. There is 
nothing to tell about this part of our journey, except 
that the locusts had in places destroyed all the fruit and 
vegetables, so that the Turks are already beginning to 
bave some experience of the Divine punishment. 



43 



5. THE TOWN OF H. 



Statement made by Miss DA., a Danish Lady in 
the Service of the German Red Cross at H., 
to Mr. DB. at Basle, and communicated by 
Mr. DB. to Lord Bryce. 



Sister DA. left the German Red Cross Mission at H. 
in April, 1916, travelling through Ourfa to Aleppo, and 
thence by road and railway across Anatolia to Constan- 
tinople. Mr. DB. met her at Basle, on her way from 
Constantinople to Denmark, in the house of a mutual 
friend. 

Sister DA. told Mr. DB. that on the i6th March, 1915, 
the German Vice-Consul appointed provisionally to 
Erzeroum (the Consul himself being interned in Russia) 
was passing through the town of H., accompanied by 
two German officers, and arranged to dine that evening 
with the German Red Cross Staff, after paying his 
respects to the Vali. At the hour fixed, only the two 
officers appeared. They said that they had called, with 
the Vice-Consul, upon the Vali, but after a time the 
Vali had shewn signs of being irked by their presence, 
and so they had taken th(M"r dc^parturc, leaving the Vali 
and the Vice-Consul together. The company waited 
for the Vice-Consul about two liours. He arrived about 



44 



THE SIX ARMEXIAX VILAYETS. 

9.30 p.m., in a state of great agitation, and told them 
at once the purport of his interview. The \^ali had 
declared to him that the Armenians in Turkey must be, 
and wer e going to be, exterminated ^ They had grown, 
lie said, in wealth and numbers until thev had become 
a menace to the ruling 'J'urkish race; extermination was 
the only remedy. The Vice-Consul had expostulated, 
and represented that persecution always increased the 
spiritual vitality of a subject race, and on grounds of 
expediency wrs the worst policy for the rulers. " Well, 
we shall see," said the \'ali, and closed the conversa- 
tion. 

This incident occurred on the i6th March, 1915, and Mr. 
OB. points out that it nuisi have been practically simul- 
taneous with an interview given by Enver Pasha at Con- 
stantinople to the Grei^^orian Bishop of Konia in the G^^ 
course of February, i(ji57"nl(:i Style. In this interview 
the Bishop had asked Knver whether he were satisfied 
with the conduct of the Armenian soldiers in the Otto- 
man Armv, and Enver had testified warmly to their 
energy, courage and loyalty — so warmly, in fact, that 
the Bishop at once asked whether he might publish this 
testimonial over Enver's name. Enver readily con- 
sented, and the Gregorian Patriarchate at Constantin- 
ople accordingly circulated an authorised account of 
the interview to the Armenian, and even to the Turkish, 
press.* ThuSj^^ m the latter j^^^rj^M^bruary, I9j5,jthe 
Cent ral Gov ernmj^rii_aMC^instantinople was advertising 
Its friendly feelings towards itii- Arm enTansTTbjects, while 
lir the i6tTi March, less than a month later, it had given 
ils~representative in a remote province to understand 



* This incident was rommiinicated to Mr. DB. by DC. Effendi, 
a «:entlcnian who had held hi^h office under the Ottoman Govern- 
nicnt till the outbreak of the War. 

45 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

that_ageneral massacre of these same Armenians was 
imminent. ~ ~~"" " 

To return to Sister DA.'s narrative — she told Mr. 
DB. that between February and the beginning of May, 
19 1 5, about 400 Armenians had been arrested and im- 
prisoned at H. They were the young men, the strong 
in body and the intellectuals. Most of their kind had 
been taken for the Army in the mobilisation of the pre- 
vious autumn, but these 400 had been left, and were 
now thrown into prison instead of being conscribed. 

At the beginning of May, the Vali of H. sent for the 
head of the German Protestant Mission Station in the 
town, and requested him to tell the Armenians that they 
must surrender their arms. Otherwise, he said, the most 
stringent measures would be taken against them. The 
missionaries must persuade them to deliver up the arms 
quickly. The head of the Mission Station called a 
meeting of Armenian notables, and put to them what 
the Vali had said. The Armenians decided to consult 
with their Turkish fellow-townsmen, and so a mixed 
meeting was held of all the Turkish and Armenian nota- 
bles of H. At this meeting the Turkish notables urged 
the Armenians to give up their arms, and promised that, 
if they did so, they themselves would guarantee their 
security, and would see that they suffered nothing at the 
Government's hands. 

This promise induced the Armenians to comply. They 
collected their arms and presented them to the Vali, but 
the Vali declared that all had not been brought. The 
newest and most dangerous weapons, he said, had been 
in the hands of the 400 prisoners. These' must be sur- 
rendered also, or the penalties he had threatened would 
still be inflicted on the whole Armenian community at 
H. So the notables went to the men in prison, and 
besought them to reveal where their arms were hidden; 

46 



THE SIX ARMENIAN VILAYETS. 

all the Gregorian priests went, and the head of the 
German ^lission Station went with them. The 400 were 
obstinate at first, but it was represented to them that, 
if they refused, they would be responsible for the destruc- 
tion of the whol-e community, and at last they gave in. 
They revealed the hiding-places, and the arms were 
duly found and delivered up to the Vali. 

The Vali immediately had photographs taken of all 
the arms collected, and sent them to Constantinople as 
evidence that an Armenian revolution was on the point 
of breaking out at H. He asked for a free hand to sup- 
press it, and an order came back from Constantinople 
that he was to take whatever measures he considered 
necessary on the spot. 

After that, the 400 voung men were conveved out of 
the town bv night and never heard j >fafyain. Shots 
were said to have been heard in the distance. 

Three days later, the rest of the Armenian community 
at H. was summoned b\- bugle 10 assemble before the 
Government Building, and then deported. The men 
were first sent off in one direction, and later the \\omen 
and children, on ox-carts, in another. They were only 
given a few hours to make their preparations, and Sister 
DA. described their consternation as being terrible. 
Thev tried to dispose of their property, which the Turks 
bought up for practicallv nothing. Sewing-machines, 
for instance, sold for two or three piastres (4d. to 6d.). 
The process of deportation was extended to the whole 
Vilayet. 

The Armenian children in the German Orphanage at 
H. were sent away with the rest. " My orders," said 
the Vali, "are to deport all Armenians. I rannot make 
an exception of these." fie announced, however, tTiat 
a Government Orphanage vas lo be estni")1ish('d f(^r any 



47 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

children that remained, and shortly afterwards he called 
on Sister DA. and asked her to come and visit it. Sister 
DA. went with him, and found about 700 Armenian 
children in a good building. For every twelve or fifteen 
children there was one Armenian nurse, and they w^ere 
well clothed and fed. "See what care the Government 
is taking of the Armenians," the Vali said, and she 
returned home surprised and pleased; but when she 
visited the Orphanage again several days later, there 
were only jfiir tee n^f the ^00 childrejiJeft^-the j;est had 
disappeared. They had been^aken, she learnt, to alake 
six_hours' journe)^yToad from tlieltown and drowned. 
Three hundrexi fresh children w^ere subsequently col- 
lected at the "Orphanage," and Sister DA. believed 
that they suffered the same fate as their predecessors. 
These victims were the residue of the Armenian children 
at H. TJie^ finest boys and prettiest girls had been 
pic ked out _^nd carrTed~off by the Tul-ks and Kurds of 
THedistrict, and it was the remainder, wlio had been 
left on the Government's hands, that were disposed of 
in this way. 

As soon as the Armenians had been deported from 
H., convoys of other exiles began to pass through from 
the districts further north. Sister DA. did not see these 
convoys, because they made a detour round the town, 
and she never left the town precincts; but she talked 
with many people who did see them, and they gave a 
terrible description of their plight. The roads near the 
town, they said, were littered with the corpses of those 
who had died of sickness or exhaustion, or from the 
violence of their guards. And these accounts w^ere con- 
firmed by her own experiences last April (1916), on her 
journey to Aleppo. On the road to Aleppo from Ourfa 
she passed numbers of corpses lightly buried under a 
layer of soil. The extremities of the limbs were pro- 

48 



THE SIX ARM EX I AX VILAYETS, 

truding, and had been gnawed by dogs. She was told 
by people she met that unheard-of airocities had been 
committed, and that there were cases of T\ omen who had" 
drowned themselves to escape th~<iir tormentors. 

It was bister DA.'s impression that the depDrtation 
and massacre of the Armenians had ruined Turkey 
ecoi TofmcaJlv . I'he Armenians had been the only skilled" 
workers in the country, and industry came to a stand- 
still when they were gone. You could not replace copper 
vessels for your household; you could not get vour roof 
re-tiled. The Government had actuallv retained a few 
Armenian artisans — bakers, masons, etc. — to work for 
the Army, and whatever work was still done was done 
by these and a few others who had gone over to Islam. 
But though the sources of production were cut off, the 
Turks had not begun to feel the pinch. Having laid 
hands on the propertv of the Armenians, thev were 
richer, for the moment, than before. During the past 
year bread had been plentiful :ind cheap, cattle and 
meat had been abundant, and there were still enough 
supplies, she thought, to last for some time \et. I'nder 
these circumstances, the Turkish peasantrv were well 
content — except for the women, who resented the absence 
of their husbands at the war. The dearth of men, Sister 
DA. said, was evervwhere noticeable. She had been 
told, however, that some Kurdish tribes had refused 
to furnish recruits, and that the Ki/.ii Bashis of the 
Dersim had furnished none at all. The Government 
had been preparing an expedition against the Ki/.il 
Bashis to extort a toll of conscripts, but the plan had 
been thwarted by the Russian advance. In tlie Turkish 
villages agricultural work was being larg(*lv carried on 
by the Armenian women and childrni, who had been 
handed over to the Moslem peasants by the authorities. 
Sister DA. saw quantities of them <'\ cryw here, prac^ti- 



49 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

cally in the condition of slaves. They were never 
allowed to rest in peace, but were constantly chivied 
about from one village to another. 

As she came down to Aleppo she found the country 
under good cultivation. Great stores of bread had been 
accumulated for the army in Mesopotamia. In Ana- 
tolia, on the other hand, the fields were neglected, and 
she thought that there famine was' not far off. But it 
was not till she reached Constantinople that she found 
any present scarcity. In the provinces only sugar and 
petrol had been scarce ; at Constantinople all commodi- 
ties were both scarce and dear. 

Sister DA. was told at Constantinople that Turks of 
all parties were united in their approval of what was 
being done to the Armenians, and that Enver Pasha 
openly boasted of it as his personal achievement. Talaat 
Bey, too, was reported to have remarked, on receiving 
the news of Vartkes'* assassination : " There is no room 
in the Empire for both Armenians and Turks. Either 
they had to go or we." 



* Mr. Vartkes was an Armenian deputy in the Ottoman Par- 
liament, who was murdered, togrether with another deputy, Mr. 
Zohrab, when he was being; escorted by g-endarmes from Aleppo 
to be court-martialled at Diyarbekir. — Editor. 



50 



6. MALATIA, 

Statement by a German Eye-Witness. 



In Malatia there were 10,000 — 12,000 Armenians. 
A German, who left Malatia immediatelv before the 
deportation, reports as follows on the events which pre- 
ceded the execution of that measure : — 

" The Mutessarif, Xabi Bey, an extremely friendly 
and well-disposed elderly gentleman, was deposed some- 
time about May — as we suppose, on the ground that 
he would not have carried out the measures against the 
Armenians with the desired harshness. 

" His deputy, the Kaimakam of Arrha, had all the 
qualities required for that purpose. There could hardly 
be any doubt as to his anti-Armenian feelings or as to 
the lawlessness of his mode of action. He is probably 
responsible, together with a clique of rich 'Beys,' for 
the arbitrary imprisonment of many Armenians, for the 
inhuman application of the bastinado, and also for the 
clandestine murder of Armenian men. The Mutessarif 's 
official successor, Reshid Pasha, who arrived from 
Constantinople towards the end of June, a conscientious 
Kurd, endowed with an altogether surprising kindness 
of heart, did ever\'thing in his power, from the fir^t diw 
of his assumption of the duties of his office, to mitigate 
the fate of the numerous Armenian prisoners, to prevent 



51 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

outrages against the population on the part of the irregu- 
lar soldiers and Zaptiehs, and to make possible a lawful 
and humane settlement of the extremely difficult situa- 
tion ; in doing this he knew that he incurred danger 
and put himself into a very undesirable position. Not- 
withstanding his severity, the greater part of the i\rme- 
nian population held him in esteem as a just, incor- 
ruptible and warm-hearted man. Unfortunately his 
powers did not go very far. The movement against 
the Armenians had already, on Jiis arrival, gained too 
much strength, his own executive staff w^as neither 
sufficiently numerous nor suffi.ciently trustworthy to 
enable him to make any energetic stand for the main- 
tenance of law and order. He succumbed to the power 
of his adversaries and collapsed physically and morally 
within a very few days. Even during his serious illness 
he used every particle of strength that was in him to 
insure that the banished Armenians should be able to 
undertake their journey with safety and be properly 
cared for on the way. 

" He had delayed the departure of the Armenians from 
w'eek to week, partly with the silent hope that his great 
endeavours to procure a countermanding order might 
be successful, and oartlv in order to be able to make 
all preparations for a humane execution of the deporta- 
tion order. Finally he had to give way to the stringent 
directions of the central government and to the pressure 
of the party opposed to him in the town. 

" Before the deportation, which was effected towards 
the middle of August, wholesale murders among the 
male population occurred in the beginning of July." 



C CILICIA AND NORTHERN SYRIA. 



7. EXILES FROM ZEITOUN. 



Diary of a Foreign Resident in the Town of B. on 
the Cilician Plain. Communicated by a Swiss 
Gentleman of Geneva. 

Sunday, 14//1 March, 191 5. 

This morning I had a long conversation with Mr. 

about events at Zeituun. He iias managed to obtain 

some information regarding tlie little Armenian town, 
although all direct communication with it has been inter- 
rupted. Turkish troops ha\e left Aleppo iuv Zeiloun 
— some say 4,000, some 6,000, others 8,000. With what 

intention, one wonders? Mr. , who has been there 

himself during last summer and this winter, assures 
me that the Armenians have no wish to revolt, and are 
prepared to put up with anything the Government may 
do. Contrary to the old-established custom, a levy was 
made at Zeitoun at the time of the August mobilisation, 
and thev did not ofter the slightest resistance. None the 
less, the Government has played them false. In October, 



53 



GERJIAXY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

19 14, their leader, Nazaret Tcliaoush, came to Marash 
with a "safe conduct " to arrange some special points 
with the officials. In spite of the " safe conduct," they 
imprisoned him, tortured him and put him to death. 
Still the people of Zeitoun remained quiet. Bands of 
zaptiehs (Turkish gendarmes), quartered in the town, 
have been molesting the inhabitants, raiding shops, 
stealing, maltreating the people and dishonouring their 
women. It is obvious that the Government are trying 
to get a case against the Zeitounlis, so as to be able to 
exterminate them at their pleasure and yet justify them- 
selves in the eyes of the world. 

— th April, 1 915. 

Three Armenians from Dort Yol were hanged last 
night in the chief square of Adana. The Government 
declare that they had been signalling to the British war- 
ship or warships stationed in the Gulf of Alexandretta. 
This is untrue, for I know, though I dare not put the 
source of my information on paper, that only one Arme- 
nian from Dort Yol has had any communication with the 
English. 

— th April. 

Two more Armenians from Dort Yol have been 
hanged at Adana. 

— th April. 

Three Armenians have been hanged at Adana. We 
were out riding to-day, and the train came into the 
station just as we reached the railway. Imagine our 
indignation when we saw a cattle-truck filled with Arme- 
nians from Zeitoun. Most of these mountaineers were 
in rags, but a few were quite well dressed. They had 
been driven out of their homes and were going to be 
transplanted, God knows where, to some town in Asia 
Minor. It seems we have returned to the davs of the 



54 



CILICIA AND NORTHERN SYRIA, 

Assyrians, if whole populations can be exiled in this 
wav, and the sacred liberty ()\ the individual so violated. 

— th April {the next day). 

\W' were able to see the unfortunate refugees, who are 
still here to-day. These are the circumstances of their 
departure from Zeitoun, or rather this is the tragedy 
which preceded their exile, though it was not the cause 
of it. 

The Turkish gendarmes outraged several girls in the 
town, and were attacked in consequence by about twenty 
of the more hot-headed young men. Several gendarmes 
were killed, though all the while the population as a 
whole was opposed to bloodshed, and desired most ear- 
nestly to avoid the least pretext for reprisals. The twenty 
rebels were driven out of the town and took refuge in a 
monastery about three-quarters of an hour's distance 
from the town. At this point the troops from Aleppo 
arrived. The Zeitounlis gave them lodging, and it 
seemed that all was going excellently between the popu- 
lace and the 8,000 soldiers under their German officers.^ 

The Turks surrounded the monastery and attacked it 
for a whole day; but the insurgents defended themselves, 
and, at the cost of one man slightly wounded, they killed 
300 of the regular troops. During the night, moreover, 
they managed to escape. 

Their escape was as yet unknown to the town when, 
about nine o'clock on the following morning, the Turkish 
Commandant summoned about 300 of the principal in- 
habitants to present themselves immediately at the mili- 
tary headquarters. Thcv obeyed the summons without 
the least suspicion, believing themselves to be on excel- 
lent terms with the authorities. Some of ihem took a 
little monev, others some clothing or wraps, but the 
maj(^ritv came in their work'ing (^lothesand brought noth- 



5.5 



GERMANY, TUUKEV AND ARMENIA. 

ing with them. Some of them had even left their flocks 
on the mountains in the charge of children. When they 
reached the Turkish camp, they were ordered to leave 
the town at once without returning to their homes. They 
were completely stupefied. Leave? But for where? 
They did not know. 

They had been unable even yet to learn their destina- 
tion, but it is probable that they are being sent to the 
Vilayet of Konia. Some of them have come in carriages 
and some on foot. 
— th April. 

I heard to-day that the whole population of Dort Vol 
has been taken away to work on the roads. They con- 
tinue to hang Armenians at Adana, It is a point worth 
remembering that Zeitoun and Dort YOl are the two 
Armenian towns which held their own during the Adana 
massacres of 1909. 

—th May. 

A new batch of Zeitounlis has just arrived. I saw 
them marching along the road, an interminable file 
under the Turkish whips. It is really the most miser- 
able and pitiable thing in the world. Weak and scarcely 
clothed, they rather drag themselves along than walk-. 
Old women fall down, and struggle to their feet again 
when the zaptieh approaches with lifted stick. Others 
are driven along like donkeys. I saw one young woman 
drop down exhausted. The Turk gave her two or three 
blows with his stick and she raised herself painfully. 
Her husband w^as walking in front with a baby two or 
three days old in his arms. 

Further on an old woman had stumbled, and slipped 
down into the mud. The gendarme touched her two or 
three times with his whip, but she did not stir; then he 
gave her several kicks with his foot; still she did not 
move; then he kicked her harder, and she rolled over 

56 



CI Lie I A AXD y OUT HERN SYRIA, 

into the ditch; I hope that she was already dead. 

These people Iia\e now arrived in the town. They 
have had nothing to eat for two days. The Turks for- 
bade them to bring anything with them from Zeitoun, 
except, in some cases, a few blankets, a donkey, a mule, 
or a goat. But even these things they are selling here 
for practically nothing — a goat for one medjidia (3s. 2d.), 
a mule for half a lira (nine shillings). This is because 
the Turks steal them on the road. One young woman 
who had only been a mother eight days, had her donkey 
stolen the first night of the journey. What a way of 
starting out I The German and Turkish officers made 
the Armenians leave all their property behind, so that 
the mouhadjirs (refugees) from Thrace might enter into 

possession. There are five families in 's house I 

The town and the surrounding villages (about 25,000 
inhabitants) are entirely destroyed. 

Between fifteen and sixteen thousand exiles have been 
sent towards Aleppo, but they are going to be taken 
further. Perhaps into Arabia? Can the real object be 
to starve them to death ? 'i'hose who have passed through 
our town were going to the \^ila\-et of Konia; there too 
there are deserts. 

—th May. 

Letters ha\e come which confirm my fears. It is not 
to Aleppo that the Zeitounlis are being sent, but to Der- 
el-Zor, in Arabia, between Aleppo and Babylonia. And 
those we saw the other day are going to Kara-Pounar, 
bet\\(X^n Konia and Eregli, in the most arid part of Asia 
Minor. 

Certain ladies here hav<' gixcn blankets and shoes to 
some of the poorest. 'I'he local Christians, too, have 
shown tiiemselves wonderfullv self-sacrificing. But 
what can one* do? It is a little drop of charity in the 
ocean of their sufferinf;- 



.S7 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

— th May. 

News has come from Konia. Ninety Armenians have 
been taken to Kara-Pounar. The Zeitounlis have arrived 
at Konia. Their sufferings have been increased by their 
having had to wait — some of them 8, some 15, some 
20 days — at Bozanti (the terminus of the AnatoHan Rail- 
way in the Taurus, 2,400 feet above sea level). This 
delay was caused by the enormous masses of troops pass- 
ing continually through the Cilician Gates; it is the 
army of Syria which is being recalled for the defence 
of the Dardanelles. 

AVhen the exiles reached Konia, they had eaten noth- 
ing, according to our news, for three days. The Greeks 
and Armenians at once collected monev and food for 
their relief, but the Vali of Konia would not allow any- 
thing of any kind to be given to the exiles. They there- 
fore remained another three days without food, at the 
end of which time the Vali removed the prohibition and 
allowed food to be served out to them under the super- 
visioH of the zaptiehs. 

My informant tells me that, after the departure of the 
Armenians from Konia for Kara-Pounar, he saw an 
Armenian woman throw her new-born baby into a well ; 
another is said to have thrown hers out of the window 
of the train. 
— th May. 

A letter has come from Kara-Pounar. I know the 
writer of it, and can have no doubt of his truthfulness. 
He says that the 6,000 or 8,000 Armenians from Zeitoun 
are dying there from starvation at the rate of 150 to 200 
a day. So from 15,000 to 19,000 Zeitounlis must have 
been sent into Arabia, the total population of the town 
and the outlying villages having been about 25,000. 
— th May. 

The whole garrison of and of Adana have left for 

5S 



\ 



CILICIA AND NORTHERN SYRIA. 

the Dardanelles. There are no troops left to defend the 
district if it should be attacked from outside. 
— th May {the next day). 

New troops have arrived, but thcv are untrained. 
—th May. '. 

The last batch of Zeitounlis passed through our town 
to-day, and 1 was able to speak to some of them in the 
han where they had been put. I saw one poor little girl 
who had been walking, barefoot, for more than a week ; 
her only clothing was a torn pinafore; she was shivering 
with cold and hunger, and her bones were literally push* 
ing through her skin. 

About a dozen children had to be left on the road 
because they could not walk any further. Have they 
died of hunger? Probably, but no one will ever know 
for certain. I also saw two poor old women without 
any hair left, or with hardly any. When the Turks 
drove them out of Zeitoun they had been rich, but they 
could not take anything with them beyond the clothes 
they were wearing. They managed somehow to hide 
five or six gold pieces in their hair, but, unfortunately 
for them, the sun glinted on the metal as they marched 
along and the glitter attracted the notice of a zaptieh. 
He did not waste any time in picking out the pieces of 
gold, but found it much quicker to tear the hair out by 
the roots. 

I came across another very characteristic case. A citi- 
zen of Zeitoun, formerly a rich man, was leading two 
donkevs, the last remnants of his fortune. A gendarme 
came along and seized their bridles; the Armenian 
implored him to leave them, saying that he was already 
on the verge of starvation. The only answer he received 
from the Turk was a shower of blows, repeated till he 
rolled over in the dust; even then the Turk continued 
beatini: him, till the dust was turned into a blox)d-soaked 



59 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

mud; then he gave a final kick and went off with the 
donkeys. Several Turks stood by watching; they did 
not appear to be at all surprised, nor did any of them 
attempt to intervene. 
— th May. 

The authorities have sent a number of people from 
Dort Vol to be hanged in the various towns of Adana 
Vilayet. 
—th May, * 

There is a rumour of a partial exodus from Marash. 
It is going to be our town next. 

Dort Yol has also been evacuated and the inhabitants 
sent into Arabia. Hadjin is threatened with the same 
fate. There has been a partial clearing out of Adana; 
Tarsus and Mersina are threatened too, and also Aintab. 



60 



8. Information regarding Events in Armenia, pub- 
lished in the ** Sonnenaufgang" (Organ of the 
*' German League for the Promotion of 
Christian Charitable Work in the East"), 
October, 1915; and in the " Allgemeine 
Missions-Zeitschrift," November, 1915. 



This testimony is especially signijicau! because it 
comes fro7n a German source, and because the Ger- 
man Censor made a strenuous attempt to suppress it. 

The same issue of the " Sonnenaujgang " contains 
the following editorial note : — 

*' In our preceding issue ive published an account by 
one of our sisters {Schwester Mohring) of her experi- 
ences on a journey y but we have to abstain from giving 
to the public the new details that are reaching us in 
abundance. It costs us much to do so, as our friends 
will understand ; but the political situation of our coun- 
try demands it." 

In the case of the " Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrift,'* 
the Censor was not content with putting pressure on the 
editor. On the loth Xovember, he forbade the repro- 
duction of the present article in the Gcr)nan press, and 
did his best to confiscate the whole current issue of the 
magazine. Copies of both publications, however, found 
their leay across the frontier. 

Both the incriminating articles are drawn from com- 
mon sources, but the extracts they make from them do 

6i 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

not entirely coincide, so that, by putting them together, 
a fuller version of these sources can be compiled. 

In the text printed below, the unbracketed paragraphs 
are those which appear both in the " Sonnenaufgang " 
and in the '' Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrift" ; while par- 
agraphs included in angular brackets [ < > ] appear only 
in the " Sonnenaufgang," and those in square brackets 
([ ]) only in the '' Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrift." 

Between the loth and the 30th May, 1,200 of the most 
prominent Armenians and other Christians, without 
distinction of confession, were arrested in the Vilayets 
of Diyarbekir and Mamouret-ul-Aziz. 

<It is said that they were to be taken to Mosul, but 
nothing more has been heard of them.> 

[On the 30th May, 674 of them were embarked on 
thirteen Tigris barges,^under the pretext that they were 
to be taken to Mosul. The Vali's aide-de-camp, assisted 
by fifty gendarmes, was in charge of the convoy. Half 
the gendarmes started off on the barges, while the other 
half rode along the bank. A short time after the start 
the Armenians were stripped of all their money (about 
£6,000 Turkish) and then of their clothes ; after that they 
were thrown into the river. The gendarmes on the bank 
were ordered to let none escape. The clothes of these 
victims were sold in the market of Diyarbekir.] 

<About the same time 700 young Armenian m.en 
were conscribed, and were tlien seffHto build the Kara- 
baghtche-Habashi road. There is no news of these 
700 men either. 

It is said that in Diyarbekir five or six priests were 
stripped naked one day, smeared with tar7~arii31i ragged 
through the streets. 

In the Vilayet of Aleppo they have evicted the inhabi- 
tants of Hadjin, Shar, Albustan, Goksoun, Tasholouk, 

62 



I 



CILICIA AND NORTHERN SYRIA. 

Zeitoun, all the villages of Alabash, Geben, Shivilgi, 
Furnus and the surrounding villages, Fundadjak, 
Hassan-Beyli, Harni, Lappashli, Dort Yol and 
others. > 

[They have marched them off in convoys into the desert 
on the pretext* of settling them there. In the village of 
Tel-Armen (alone^ the line of the Bagdad Railway, near 
Mosul) and in the neighbouring villages about 5,000 
people were massacred, leaving only a few women^ and 
cTrildrerT] The people were thrown alive down wells or 
into the fire. They pretend that the Armenians are to 
be employed in colonising land situated at a distance 
of twenty-four to thirty kilometres from the Bagdad 
Railway. But as it is onlv the women and children who 
are sent into exile, since all the men, with the exception 
of the ver\' old, are at the war, this means nothing less 
than the wholesale m urder of the famih cs, since they 
have neither the labour nor the capital for clearing the 
country.] 

A German met a Christian soldier of his ac(|uaintance, 
who was on furlough from Jerusalem. The man was wan- 
dering up and down along the banks of the luiph rates 
searching for his wife and children, who were supposed 
to have been transferred to that neighbourhood. Such 
unfortunates are often to be met with in Aleppo, because 
thev believe that there they will learn something about 
the whereabouts of their relations. It has often hap- 
pened that when a member of a family iias been absent, 
he discovers on his return that all his family are gonp 
— evicted from their homes. 

[For a whole month corpses were observed floating 
down the River luiph rates nearly every day, often in 
batches of from two to six corpses bound togetlier. The 
male corpses are in many cases hideously mutilated 
(sexual organs cut off, and so on), the female corpses 

6.1 



\ 



GERMANY, TVRKF.Y AND ARMENIA. 

are ripped open. The Turkish military authority in con- 
trol of the Euphrates, the Kaimakam of Djerablous, 
refuses to allow the burial of these corpses, on the 
ground that he finds it impossible to establish whether 
they belong to Moslems or to Christians. He adds that 
no one has given him any orders on the subject. The 
corpses stranded on the bank are devoured by dogs and 
vultures. To this fact there are many German eye- 
witnesses. An employee of the Bagdad Railway has 
brought the information that the pjisons at Bi£edjjJ5^ 
are filled regularly_every day and emptied every night 
— into the Eup h rates. Between Diyarbekir and Qurfa 
a German cavalry captain saw innumerable corpses 
lying unburied all along the road.] 

<The following telegram was sent to Aleppo from 
Diyarbekir: — ''We have accepted the True Religion. 
Now we are all right." The inhabitants of a village 
near Anderoum went over to Islam and were allowed to 
stay. At Hadjin six families wanted to become Moham- 
medans. They were told : "Nothing under one hundred 
families will be accepted." 

Aleppo and Ourfa are the assembling-places for the 
convov of exiles. There were about 5,000 of them 
in Aleppo during June and July, while during the 
whole period from April to July many more than 50,000 
must have passed through the city. TlTe girls^ere 
abducted almost without exception by the soldieFs and 
thei r~A ralTTiahgers^ . One' father, on the verge of 
despair,~lSesougKrme to take with me at least his fifteen- 
year-old daughter, as he could no longer protect her 
from the persecutions inflicted upon her. The children 
left behind bv the Armenians on their journey are past 
counting. 

Women whose pains came upon them on the way had 
to continue their journey without respite. A woman 

64" 



CILICIA AND XORTHERy SYRIA, 

bore twins in the neighbourhood of Aintab; next morn- 
ing she had to go on again. She very soon had to leave 
the children under a bush, and a little while after she 
collapsed herself. Another, whose pains came upon her 
during the march, was compelled to go on at once and 
fell down dead almost immediately. There were several 
more incidents of the same kind between Marash and 
Aleppo.* 

The villagers of Shar were permitied to carrv all their 
household effects with them. On the road they were 
suddenly told: " An order has come for us to leave the 
high road and travel across the mountains." Every- 
thing — waggons, oxen and belongings — had to be left 
behind on the road, and then they went on over the 
mountains on foot. This vear the heat has been excep- 
tionally severe, and many women and children naturally 
succumbed to it even in these early stages of their 
journey. 

There are about 30,000 exiles of whom we hj uig no 
news at all, as they have arrived neither at Aleppo nor 
at Ourfa.> 



* "We have just picked up fifteen babies. Three are already 
dead. They were terribly thin and ailing* when we found th»^m. 
Ah I If we (ould only write all that we see." — Extract from a 
letter dated Marash, 4th June, igis, publi.shod in "Sonnmauf- 
g^ang"," September, iq'S- 



6S 



9. Extracts from the Records of a German who 
died in Turkey. 

Between the 28th July and the 20th August, 1915, I 
travelled to Marash. At Beshgoz, between Killis and 
Aintab, it was a subject of conversation among the 
villagers that the deportation of the Armenians would 
begin at Aintab too on the following day. A little 
while after, a well-dressed gentleman, a Circassian, 
according to his appearance, being partly in mufti 
and partly in officer's uniform, joined the group of 
talkers and. asked: "From what part of the town are 
people being sent away ? By what road do they go ? 
What kind of people are they ? Are they people from 
whom anything is to be got?" When one of the per- 
sons present asked him whether he was a civilian or in 
military service, he said smilingly: "Is there a finer 
opportunity of being a soldier than now?" The same 
person said afterwards : " This time_J}erma^^ 
these unb elievin g swine a lesson which_they_ will not 
forget/'* 

T)n hearing this, I could not refrain from replying that 
it was^ soiling the_name of Germany to mention it in 
con n^ctk)n yvith the_ things which I had just been com- 
pelled_ to_hear. On my return journey I heard that the 
first convoys from Aintab, consisting almost exclusively 
of well-to-do families, were stripped to their shirts, 

* The italics are the Editor's. 
66 



CILICIA AND NORTHERN SYRIA. 

and I was assured from several sides that this was done 
with the connivance of the Government authorities, with 
w^hom the above-mentioned questionable gentleman 
must, according to all appearances, have been in rela- 
tion. At Karaboylik, between Aintab and Marash, I 
met a convoy of Armenians, consisting of about forty 
women and children and five or six men. Close in front 
of them, at a distance of about i8o yards, loo newly- 
enlisted soldiers were marching. Tl3iere_was_a_yming 
lady among the women, _a_ teacher, who_for several 
yea i¥ had been in German employrnentj she had just 
recovered from a serious attack of typhoid fever. The 
soldiers wanted her and a voungwi fe, wlio se^hjisbaiid 
is at^present~a~ s^IHier Tn'TJamascusTto sp end the _night 
with_jhem, and used force to make them. It was only 
through the Mohammedan mule drivers coming to the 
assistance of the women, that the soldiers could be kept 
off during their three attacks. 

On the 6th August the Armenian village of Fundad- 
jak, near Marash, a place of about 3^ooojti habitants^ 
was battered down to the ground. The population, con- 
sisting almosF excTTi^iveT}' of mule drivers, had, during 
the preceding three months, been frequently compelled 
to transport Armenians in the direction of the Euphrates. 
Thev had seen the corpses in the Euphrates, and had 
also observed with their own eyes the se lling a nd 'ranging 
of women and girls . 

In an Armenian school at Marash I saw over loo 
women and children with bullet woun ds in their legs 
and their arms, and with all sorts of mutilations; among 
them were children of one to two years. 

On the 13th August, 34 Aririenians, including two 
boys twelve years old, were shot at M arash. Again, 
on the 15th August, 24_were shot and 14 were hanged. 

67 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

The 24 who were shot were tied together with a heavy 
chain that went round their necks, and were made to 
stand up together in one mass. They were shotjjti the 
presence of the Mohammedan population behind the 
'American^ College^ With my own eyes I saw the 
bodies, while still convulsed by the agonies of death, 
being abandoned to the license of the rough civilian 
mob, who pulled the hands and feet of the corpses; 
and during the next half-hour the policemen and 
gendarmes shot continuously with revolvers on these 
corpses, some of which were terribly disfigured, while 
the population looked on with amusement. Afterwards 
the same people marched up and down in front of the 
German Hospital and shouted, "Vashasin Almanya*' 
(Long Uve__Ger}nany),* Again and again I have been 
toT3 by Mohammedans that it was Germany which 
caused the Armenians t o be e xtlrpated~irrTHrs way. 

On the way from the town to the farm I saw, on the 
outskirts of the town, a human head lying on a dung- 
heap, which was used as a target by Turkish boys. In 
Marash itself, during my stay there, Armenians were 
every day killed by the civil population, and the corpses 
were left for days in the open sewers or elsewhere. 

Kadir Pasha said to me at Marash: "I know that, 
in pursuance of an order from the Government, the 
whole_m ale pop ulation with in th e area of the 4th Army 
Corps was killed^" 

On the 20th August, igist, at .six o'clock in the e\'en- 
ing, it was proclaimed at Marash that, according to the 
order of the Vali of A dan a, all males over 15 years of 
age (5,600 altogether) must be assembled outside the 

* The italics are the Editor's. 
• t This was a Friday. 

68 



CILICIA AXD yORTHERN SYRIA. 

town, ready for marching, by mid-day on Saturday; 
any one of them found in the town after 12 o'clock 
would be shot on the spot. Everyone knew the mean- 
ing of this order, and we lived through hours of most 
awful terror. At the last moment the Vali's order, 
owing to the intervention of the very humane Governor 
of Marash, was modified to the extent that the men 
would be allowed to leave w^th their families. Only 
on the i8th August the Vali had sent for the clerical 
authorities, and had given them an assurance that the 
Armenians in Marash would not be deported. Thus the 
first who had to leave the town had to do so without 
any previous preparation. 

In the village of Boveren, near Albistan, all th e Arme - 
nian^ i nhabitants, 82 in number, with the exception of a 
boy twelve years old, who jumped into the water and 
escaped, were killed. 

In the neighbourhood of Zeitoun the inhabitants of a 
village infested by tho smallpox were deported. The 
patients suffering from smallpox, including those whose 
eyesight had been destroyed by the illness, were lodged 
in bans (i.e. inns) at Marash, in which deported persons 
from other districts were lodged alreadv. 

At Marash T saw a convoy, consisting of about 
200 persons, among whom were several blind. A 
mother, of the age of about 60, led her daughter, who 
was lame from birth; in this manner thev started on 
their journey on foot. After an hour's march a man 
collapsed near the Krkeness bridge; he was robbed and 
killed. Four davs afterwards we still saw his corpse 
lying in a ditch. 

Last night I called on an acquaintance; he had given 
hospitality to a mother and her child who had been 
deported from Sivas — the two survivors of a family of 
26 persons who had been deported from Sivas three 

60 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

months before and had reached Marash in the last few 
days . 

In Ainlab I saw a written order of the Governor of 
the town, prohibiting the purchase on the part of the 
Mohammedan population of any objects belonging to 
the deported Armenians. The same Governor caused 
preparations to be made for a raid on the deported per- 
sons. Tw^o convoys were robbed of everything, down 
to the shirts of the people belonging to them. 

About 2,800 per sons deported from Giirun^ were at- 
tacked and robbed at Airan-Pounar (12 hours to the 
north-east of Marash) by eight brigands, who wore 
uniforms, partly officer's uniform and partlv private's. 
At Kisyl Gedjid, ij hours sliort of Airan-Pounar, the 
eight brigands joined the gendarmes escorting the con- 
voy and had a long conversation with them. At Airan- 
Pounar the gendarmes ordered the people to divide into 
two parties ; the few men formed one party, and the 
women the other party. The women were stripped 
naked and robbed of everything; four women and two 
gi rls were d ragged aw^in the night~and violated ; fTve* 
of_them returried on the foTTowing morning. Tn~a^efile 
of the Engissek-DagTrtlrc^^wtiole convoy~was completely 
plundered by Turks and Kurds. In this assault 200 
persons were killed; 70 severely wounded persons had 
to be left behind, and more than 50 more were taken 
along with the convoy. I met the convoy, then con- 
sisting of about 2,500 persons, at Karaboyilk. The 
people were in an indescribable state of misery; one 
hour short of Karaboyiik two men were lying on the 
road, one with two and the other with seven knife- 
wounds; further on there were two exhausted women; 
still further four women, including a girl of 13, with 
a two days' old baby in her arms, wrapped in rags. A 
man of about 60, who was lying in the road with a 

70 



'CILICIA AND NORTHERN SYRIA, 

deep wound (inflicted by a dagger), as long as a finger 
and two fingers wide, told me that he had left Giiriin 
with 13 animals. All the animals and all his goods were 
taken away from him at Airan-Pounar, and he had 
dragged himself away on foot, until he reached a place 
about an hour short of Karaboyiik, where he fell down 
exhausted. 

These people had all been in easy circumstances; the 
value of the goods, the animals and the monev of which 
they were robbed, is estimated at T£8,ooo. Those who 
were exhausted were left lying on the road; corpses 
can be seen lying on both sides of it. Among the 2,500 
persons of whom this convov \\as composed I saw no 
males, with the exception of about 30-40. All males 
ove r the age of 15 were taken aw av in the si glrt^f the 

^^^2I21^^1»--^-Ild-3V^LC--,R£2l^'^^^^ killed. These Armenians -^ 
were intentionally transported bv circuitous routes and 
over dangerous paths. By the direct road to Marash 
thev would have arrived in four davs, and thev have 
been on the road for over a month. They had to travel 
without animals, without beds, without food; once in 
every day they received a thin slice of bread, and then 
not enough to satisfv their hunger. Four hundred of 
them (Protestants) have in the meantime arrived at 
Aleppo; out of these two or three die every day. 

The raid at Ainar-Pounar was carried out witji the 
connivance of the Kaimakam at Albistan, who made 
them pav him Ti:2()o, and promised tin* people that he 
would see that they reached Aintab safely. The Kaima- 
kam at Giiriin made them pay him T£ 1,020, and gave 
the same assurances. I saw a man who, toi^ciher with 
others, handed this sum to the Kaimakam in the club 
room at Giiriin. In the neighbourhood of Aintab several 
women belonging to this convoy were violated in the 
night bv civilian inhabitants of Aintab. On the occa- 

71 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

sion of the raid ^it Airan-Pounar men were tied to trees 
and burnt alive. While the Armenians at Giiriin \verc 
actually leaving the town, the Mollahs called the faithful 
to prayer from the roofs of the Christian Churches. An 
eye-witness told me about a dispute between two brothers 
relating to the booty at Airan-Pounar; one of them said : 
" |^QI_ these four loads jjha}'e_ kUled forty women." 

At Marash a Alohammedan of the name of Hadji, 
v»hom I have known for years, told me the following 
incident: " At Nissibin, I and all the mule-drivers were 
locked up in a han ; several young women belonging 
to Furnus were violated during the night by the gen- 
darmes escorting the convoy and by civilians." 

At Aintab, at the office of the Commissioner of Police, 
a 3,lohammedan Agha said in my presence to an Arme- 
nian : " In such and such places letters have been found. 
What are your relations with this man ? I have often 
told you to become a ^Johammedan : if you had listened 
to me, you would have escaped all the disagreeable 
things to which your nation is exposed." 

Out of 18,000 pe rsons who were deported from Khar- 
put and Sivas, 350 arrived at Aleppo (consisting of 
women and children); out of j^^^o^eported from Erze- 
roum, only eleven — one sick boy, four girls and six 
women-breached that town. A convoy of women and 

— ■ ■ — — -- -^ — — — — -; -.- 

girls had to jwalk the__65 hours frojn _Kas-el-Ajn _to_ 
A lepp o, "along the railway line, notwithstanding the 
fact that at the same time the railway carriages, which 
had been used for the transport of soldiers, were return*- 
ing empty. ]\Iohammedan travellers, who came along 
this way, report that the roads are impassable owing to 
th£jTi£rn^_coijoseslying unburied ^n both sjdes of the 
roadV the srnell T)rwEich is poisoning the air. Of those 
" remaining over, ''' who so far have not been sent further 
on, 100-120 persons have died at Aleppo up to the pre- 



CILICIA AM) NORTHERX SYRIA, 

sent, in consequence of the hardships of the journey. Tlie 
starving and emaciated women and children, on their 
arrival at Aleppo, fell on the food like wild beasts. In 
the case of many of them the digestive organs had 
ceased to work ; after having devoured one or two spoon- 
fuls they put the spoon aside. The Government alleges 
that the deported persons recei\e food, init in the case 
of the above-mentioned con\oy, which came from Khar- 
put, a di stribution of bread took place on ly once_jjX 
three m onths . 

The Government does not merely neglect to make any 
provision for the people ; on the contrarv, it causes everv- 
thing to be taken away from them. At Ras-el-Ain a 
convoy of 200 girls and women arrived in a state of 
complete nudity; their shoes, their chemises, evervthing, 
in short, had been taken away from ihem, and thev were 
made to walk for four days under the hot sun — tjie tem- 
pera ture was _j22 degrees in the shade — in their condi- 
tion of nakedness, jeered at and^derided by the soldiers 
of their escort. Mr. X. told me that he himself had seen 
a convoy, consisting of 400 women and children, in the 
same state. Whenever the wretched exiles appealed to 
the humanity of the officials, the replv was: " \\> have 
strict^ orders fxom the Government to treat you in this, 
wa^^_ 

At first the dead in Aleppo wer*:* brought to the ceme- 
terv in the coffins provided by the Armenian Church. 
This was done by " Hamals " (professional porters), 
who received two piastres for each dead. When the 
"Hamals" were unable to cope with the whole work, 
the women themselves brought their dead to the ceme- 
terv — the babies in their arms, tlie bigger children laid 
on sacks and carried by four women, one at each corner. 
I saw corpses carried to tlie cemetery across a donkey "s 



\\ 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

back. A friend of mine saw a dead body tied to a stick, 
which was carried by two men. Another friend saw a 
cart drawn by oxen going to the cemetery with a full 
load of corpses. The two-wheeled cart was too large 
to pass the narrow cemetery-gate, whereupon the driver, 
without any hesitation, turned it round and emptied it; 
then he dragged the dead bodies to their respective 
graves by the arms and legs. At the present moment 
five or six carts are in use, which take the dead to the 
cemetery. In one of the bans, which is called a hos- 
pital, I saw on a Sunday something like 30 corpses 
lying about in a yard, which was about 25 yards wide 
and 50 yards long. About 20 had already been buried 
on that day. The 30 corpses remained Iving there until 
the evening. My wife got them carried away in the 
darkness by engaging three "Hamals," to whom she 
gave a medjidie (about 3s. 2d.) each. In the case of 
one of the corpses the skin adhered to the hands of the 
"Hamals," showing how far the process of decomposi- 
tion had already gone. Dying persons and persons 
suffering from serious illnesses, about 1,000 altogether, 
were lying among the dead, under the burning sun. 
The W'hole scene was more terrible than anything I 
had ever seen, even than the shooting of the 24 people 
at Marash in the summer, which has been described 
above. Nearly all the people suffered from diarrhoea. 
Channels had been dug in the ground within the 
courtyard, by the side of which the dying were placed, 
with their backs towards the channe), so that the empty- 
ings of their bowels could pass into it at once. When- 
ever anyone died, he was removed, and his melancholy 
place was filled by another. It happened frequently 
that persons who were carried away as dead gave signs 
of life when they were near the grave ; they were dragged 
aside, until it was certain that death had supervened. 



74 



CILICIA AND yORTHERX SYRIA. 

One young girl recovered so far that she could be 
carried back to the town, and one person who had been 
buried in the evening was found sitting on his grave 
the next morning. Several corpses had been thrown 
into one grave, and he was on the top; in the twilight 
only a thin layer of earth had been put over him. In 
Tel-Abiad Mr. — saw open graves with 20-30 corpses. 
The graves were filled up with earth when it was no 
longer possible to put any more corpses into them. 
Mr. — told me that it was impossible to go near these 
places owing to the stench, and yet the deported persons 
had to encamp in the immediate vicinity. Out of 35 
orphans who were kept in one room at Aleppo, 30 died 
in a week for want of nourishment. Mr. — says that 
on his journey to this place he saw corpses everywhere 
on the road, and that a Kurd boasted to him of h aving 
ki lled 14 childr en. 

On Sunday, the 12th August, 1915, I had to go to 
the station of the Damascus railwav at Aleppo, and 
was able to see the loading into cattle trucks of about 
1,000 women and children. With us in Germanv the 
cattle are allowed more space than those wretched 
people; go per cent, of them had death written on their 
faces. There were people among them who literally 
had no time allowed thcni for dying. On the previous 
evening a convov had been taken away, and on the next 
morning the dead bodies of two children, about half 
grown up, were found, who had died during the load- 
ing of the trucks and had been left lying on the platform. 

On the 13th September, igi.S, the following tele- 
graphic order from the Commander-in-Chief of the 4th 
Arm\', Djemal Pasha, was brought lo tin* notice of the 
inhabitants: "All photographs, which may have been^ 
taken bv the engineers or other officers of the Bagdad I 
Railwav Construction Company relating to the convoys J 



75 



GERMANY, TURKEY AXD ARMENIA, 

of Armenians, are to be delivered within 48 hours, 
together with the negatives, to the MiHtary Commis- 
sariat of the Bagdad Railway at Aleppo. Any contra- 
vention of this order will be punished bv court-martial." 

Several times I saw women and children search for 
scraps of food in the dustheaps : anything that was 
found was devoured mimediately. I saw the children 
gnawing at raw bones which they had picked up in 
corners used as urinals. 

On the road between Marash and Aintab the Moham- 
medan population of a village wanted to distribute water 
and bread among a convoy of 100 families, but the 
soldiers escorting the convoy prevented this. Fpur- 
fifths of the deporte4_£gIsoji§__are_ women an d children; 
the majority of the me n have been called __up for the 
Ar mv. 

Twenty thousand persons who had been deported by 
way of Marash were not allowed to pass on to Aintab 
and obtain supplies of food, though the direct caravan 
route goes through Aintab. 

At Ras-el-Ain there are at present about 1,500 women 
and children, the only survivors out of several thou- 
sands, who, together with their husbands and fathers, 
were deported from Kharput and the surrounding coun- 
try. Among th ese 1,500 persons there_|s^jiot__a single 
maleoyer the age of lo-i^j^ars. These people, healthy 
or sick, are left lying from morning till evening in the 
sun without food and without protection against a tem- 
perature of logj degrees in the shade, and they are 
in the arbitrary power of their guards. Mr. L. — who 
during the last month had, in conversation with me, 
used the expression "Armenian rabble " — spoke liter- 
ally as follows : " 1 am not a man who is easily touched, 
but after what I have se en at Kas-el-AJn I ^can n ot keep 
the tears away. I did not think itj20ssj]2le_dTa^ su^ 

76 



CILICIA AXD XORTHERX SYRIA. 

acts of ill-treatment and violence, OLUr^^jj2g__alj_j;iiles 
of human itxY could _t)e perpetrated in ouTj:entury." 

A " Tchaoush " (Sergeant-AIajor) of the name of 
Suleiman took 18 women and girls an d sold them jto, 
Arabs, charging 2-1, mejidies (6s. 4d. — gs. 6d.) for 
each of them. A Turkish police-commissary said 
to me: " \\\' have lost all count of the numbers of 
women and girls who were taken awav by the Arabs 
and Kurds, either by force or with the connivance of 
the Government. This time we have carried out our 
operation s again st the Armenians according to our 
h e art's desir e ; n ( ) t one out of ten hasJeenJeft ajpo ri g 

the li\inp"." 

- — ^^____ — -«^ 

\Vhile I am writing this down, mv wife has returned 
from a walk into the town, and reports tearfully that 
she met a convoy of over 8 00 A rmenians, all bare-footed, 
with torn clothes, carr\ing their scanty possessions on 
their backs, together \\ith their babies. 

In Besne the whole population, consisting of ijSoo 
souls, principally women and children, were expatri- 
ated; it was alleged tiiat thev were to be deported to 
Ourfa. When they reached the Gciksu, a tributary of 
the Euphrates, they were compelled to take their clothes 
off, and thereupon they w ere all massacred and _ thrown 
J n tj;) th£_jiyer . 

On a single day latterly 170 corpses were observed 
drifting down the luiphrates, on other days 50-60. Mr. 
A., an engineer, saw 40 corpses in the course of one 
ride. Those which are stranded on the river bank are 
devoured bv the dogs, those on sandbanks in mid- 
stream b\- the \iihures. 

The .'ib()\ ('-mentioned 800 Armenians had been de- 
ported from the district of Marash. They had been 
tohl that thev would be taken to Aintab, and they were 
to pro\ :de themselves with food for two days. When 



/ / 



s 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

they reached the neighbourhood of Aintab the soldiers 
said : ' ' We have made a mistal^e, we were meant to go 
to Nissibin." No food was supplied by the authorities, 
and no opportunities for the purchase of provisions were 
given. At Nissibin the word went round: "We came 
the wrong way; we were meant to go to Mumbidj." 
There again the soldiers said: "We came the wrong 
way; we were meant to go to Bab." In this manner 
they had to wander abqu^for se vente en^ days, aban- 
doned to the arbitrary pleasure of their escort. During 
the whole time no provisions Avere supplied by the 
Government, and their scanty possessions had to be 
given away in exchange for bread. 

One mother, whose eldest daughter was taken away 
. by force, threw herself in despair into the Euphrates 
{ with her two remaining children. 

Said, an emigrant from Tripoli, who had been a 
groom in Mr. L.'s stables for four years with a monthly 
salary of 400 piastres (about £3), enlis ted as_ a_yolunteer 
for the war, in order to be able, according to his j)wn 
statement, to Take palTin the slaughter of a few Arm.e- 
nians. A nice house in an Armenian village near Ourfa 
was~promised him (he hinted) by way of reward. 

Two Circassians who were in the service of Mr. E., 
a storekeeper, enlisted as volunteers for the war on the 
same ground. 

The head of a Circassian village community, Tchor- 
dekli, speaking of the war volunteers from his village, 
said to an acquaintance of mine: " Ev yikmak itchun 
giderler " (TlT^ygo_2n__order to nnnjvliole families). 

At Arab PounaTa^Turkish Major, who spoke German, 
expressed himself as follows: " I and my brother took 
possession of a young girl at Ras-el-Ain, who had been 
left on the road. We are very angry with the Germans 

73 



CILICIA AXD NORTHERN SYRIA. 

for doing such things/' When I contradicted them, 
they said : "The Chief of the General Staff is a German; 
von der Goltz is Commander-in-Chief, and ever so many 
German officers are in our Army. Our Koran does not 
permh_suchtreatnient as the Armenians have to suffer 
noiL\''* At NussTeHa MoTfanTrhedan inspector niade 
similar remarks to a cleric. When I taxed him with 
this utterance in the presence of others, he said: "It 
is not only I who say this; everyone will tell vou the 
same tale." 

At Biredjik the prisons are filled every day and 
emptied over night. Tell Armen, a village of J^ooo 
inhabitants, was raided, the inhabitants were massacred, 
thrown dead or alive into the wells, or burnt. Major 
von Mikusch was a witness of the devastation. A 
German cav alrjy^captain saw un buried corpses between 
Diyarbekir and Ourfa on both sides of the road, with 
their throats cut. Innumerable unburied corpses of 
children were seen on the way by Mr. S. 

At Tel-Abiad seventeen dead or dying persons were 
left behind near the station, on the departure of a con- 
voy. Two railway officials afterwards had all seventeen 
buried. 

All the convoys of Armenians have for the last few 
days been taken into these parts. The statement made 
bv Mr. X. is entirely in accord with the reply given to 
me bv the Chairman of the Deportation Commission, 
when I made an application in favour of four Armenian 
children: "You do not grasp our intentions; we want 
to destroy the Armenian name. ]iisJ^jis_ Gcrmany li'i ll 
on ly let Germans ej cist, s o ivc Turks will only let J J 
Turks ,'' 



* The italics are the Editor's. 
t The italics are the Editor's. 

79 



10. Narrative of a German Official of the Bagdad 
Railway. 



When the inhabitants of the Cilician villages left 
their homes, many of them still had donkeys for rid- 
ing or carrying packs, but the soldiers escorting the 
convoys would only allow the " Katerdjis " (donkey- 
drivers) to ride on these animals, saying that strict orders 
had been given that no deported persons, whether male 
or female, might ride. In the case of the convoy start- 
ing from Hadjin the " Katerdjis " simply took all the 
pack animals which they suspected of carrying money 
or valuables straight to their own villages. Other 
animals, which the people had taken with them, were 
taken away from them by force or purchased for prices 
so absurdly low that it would hardly have made any 
difference if they had been given away gratis. A 
woman whose family is known to me sold 90 sheep 
for a hundred piastres, which at any other time would 
have realised about T£6o to £70; in other words, she 
had to sell ninety animals for the proper price of one 
animal. The villagers of Shar had received permis- 
sion to take away their oxen, carts and pack animals. 
Near Gokpunar they were forced to leave the carriage 
road and to take the shorter footpath which crosses the 
mountains. XllSZ-Jl^iJ^ march on^ without any food , 
^or thejrjourneyj)r_othe£ec|uipment. The escort simply 
said that these were their orclers. 



So 



CILICIA AXD y CRT HERN SYRIA. 

At the beginning each deported person received from 
the Government one kilogram (2 lbs .) of bread per month 
(not per day). They lived on the provisions which 
they had taken with them. Small sums of money were 
afterwards paid to them. I was told of about 30 persons 
who had formerly been in good positions in the Circas- 
sian village of Bumbudj (Mumbidj, on the ruins of the 
ancient Bambyke), ij days' journey from Aleppo, who 
had received 20 piastres_Jn^thiiitx_.days — not per lie 2^4? 
but the 30 between them. 1 hat meant a pennv _a 
rnonTh each. About four hundred^ barefooted women, 
'eacTr\v1t?i one chiM on her arm, one child on her back 
(often enough a dead one) and one held bv the hand, 
passed through Marash during the first days. The 
Armenians of Marash — who afterwards were them-- 
selves deported — purchased £30 (Turkish) worth of 
shoes to silpply those who passed through the town. 
Between Marash and Aintab the Mohammedan popu- 
lation in a Turkish village wished to give water and 
bread to a con\o\' of about 100 families. The soldiers 
refused to permit this. The Americ an m ission and the 
Armenians of Aintab — who late r on^ ere also Reported 
— managed to bring bread and nioncv during the night 
to the convoys which passed Aintab, and which totalled 
about 20^0 00 p >ersoins. mosllv women and children. 
These were the villagers n{ the Sandjak of Marash. The 
convovs were not allowed to enter Marash, but en- 
camped in the open. The American missionaries found 
it possible to provision them thus by night as far as 
Nisib (nine hours to the south-east of Aintab, on the 
way to the Euphrates). 

While on the march the deported Armenians wtT<' at 
first robbed of their ready money, and afterwards of all 
their possessions. Adeported Protj^stant minister sa^y 
T£43 being taken away TrorrrTvnT' fa m i 1 valiTr £ 2! 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

another. This minister was himself newly married, and 
was compelled to leave his young wife at Hadjin, 
expecting her first child. Four-fifths of the deported 
persons are women and children. Three-fifths of them 
are barefooted. A former inhabitant of Hadjin who 
is known to me personally and who had a fortune of 
at least T£ 15,000 had, like everybody else, been robbed 
of his clothes, and clothes had to be begged for him 
here. The deported Armenians are specially troubled 
by the fact that they are unable to bury their dead. 
They are left dying anywhere on the road. The women 
often carry their dead children for days on their backs. 
At Bab, ten hours to the east of Aleppo, those who came 
through were lodged provisionally for a week or two, 
but they were not allowed to retrace their steps to bury 
the companions who had died on the w^ay. 

Thehardest fate is that of the w^omen who are con- 
fi ned jon t he w ay. They are hardly allowed sufficient 
time to bring their child into the world. One poor 
woman gave birth to twins during the night. In the 
morning she had to march on, carrying the two newly- 
born children on her back. After a two hours' march 
she collapsed. She had to put the children on the ground 
under a bush, and the soldiers compelled her to walk on 
with her companions. Another woman was confined 
during the march and was forced to proceed on her 
march immediately; she fell down dead. A third woman 
was surrounded by ladies belonging to the American 
mission, while she was confined in the neighbourhood 
of Aintab. They only succeeded in obtaining permis- 
sion for her to ride an animal, and she continued her 
journey in this manner, holding the child in her lap 
with a few rags round it. These cases were witnessed 
merely on the section of road between -Marash and Ain- 
tab. At Aintab the people clearing up a ban, which 

82 



CILICIA AXV yORTHERN SYRIA, 

an hour before had been left by a convoy, , found a 
new-born child. In the Tash-Han, in Marash, three 
new-born children were found buried in dung. 

Innumerable corpses of children are found lying un- 
buried on the road. A Turkish Major, who returned 
with me three days ago, said that many children were 
abandoned by their mothers on the wav because they 
could not feed them any more. Older children are taken 
away from their mothers by the Turks. The ^lajor, as 
well as each of his brothers, had an Armenian child with 
him; they intended to educate them as Mohammedans. 
One of the children speaks German. It must be one 
of the inmates of a German orphanage. It is thought 
that about 300 of the women wh o passed t hrough here 
w ere confi ned on the way,. 

In this place a family, in its dire poverty and despair, 
sold a girl of the age of 18 years to a Turk for Tc£6. The 
husbands of most of the women had been called up for 
service in the Army. Anyone who does not obey the 
summons calling him up is hanged or shot; there were 
seven cases lately at Marash. The conscripts are, how- 
ever, generally used merelv for mending the roads, and 
are not allowed to carry arms. Those who return home 
find their houses empty. Two days ago I met an Arme- 
nian soldier at Djerabulus, who had come from Jeru- 
salem, having obtained leave to visit his native village, 
Geben (situate between Zeitoun and Sis). I have known 
this man. for years. Here he heard that his mother, his 
wife and three children had been deported into the 
desert. All inquiries as to the fate of his family were 
fruitless. 

Cor pses drifting down th e luiplirates have been 
observed every day during the last 28 days, pairs of 
theiiT_be[ng tied Jcjget her back to back , while otiiers are 
tied th ree to eight together bv _the_arms. A Turkish 

83 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

Colonel who is stationed at Djerabulus was asked 
why he did not have the corpses buried, whereupon 
he replied that he had no orders to do so, and that, 
moreover, it was impossible to ascertain whether they 
were Mohammedans or Christians, as their sexual 
organs had been cut off. (They would bury Moham- 
medans, but not Christians.) The corpses which had 
been stranded on the shore were eaten by the dogs. 
Others which had stuck on the sandbanks became the 
prey of the vultures. A German, in the course of one 
ride, saw six pairs of corpses drifting down stream. 
A German cavalry captain said he had, in the course 
of a ride from Diyarbekir to Ourfa, seen innumerable 
unburied corpses on both sides of the road, all corpses 
of j^un£jiT^nj\vhose throaLs_had been cut. (These were 
t he Arm enians called up for military service ^nd^ iTsed^ 
for mendingjjie roads.) A Turkish Pasha, addressing 
a distinguished Armenian, expressed himself as follows : 
'' ^iJ^^^kful, if at least you find a grave in the desert; 
many of jx)u have^to^o without thTs7^ ^~^^ 

Net on*^ half of the'cTepofte^ p^efsons remain alive. 
The day before yesterday one woman died here in the 
station yard; yesterday there were 14 deaths, and this 
morning a further 10. A Protestcint minister from 
Hadjin said to a Turk at Osmanieh : "Not one half 
of these deported persons remain alive." The Turk 
replied: "That is what we are after." 

It ought not to be overlooked that there are some 
?^Johammedans who disapprove of the horrible deeds 
done aeainst the Armenians. A Mohammedan Sheikh, 
a person of great authority at Aleppo, said in my pre- ' 
sence : " Whe n I hea r talk about the trea trner.t of the 
Armeni^jjs, I am^ashame^jof being a TiIrkT^ 

Ajivone who wishes to remain aH^ is compelled to 
g o over to _Islam. In order to promote~tETs, isolated 

84 



CILICIA AXD XORTHERN SYRIA. 

families are in certain cases sent to purely Mohani- 
medan villages. 

The number of deported persons who have passed 
through here and at Aintab has so far reached about 
50,000. Xine-tenihs of them wer e told o n the evening 
Eefore th'eTr deportation that they had to start in the 
rn orning . The majority of the convovs go through 
Ourfa, the minority through Aleppo. The first men- 
tioned take the road for Mosul, the others for I)er-el- 
Zor. The authorities say that they are to be settled 
there, but those who esc ape the knife will certa in!}^ 
perijh of hurLg£j. Some 10,000 persons have reached 
'Der-el-Zor on the Euphrates; no news has so far been 
received of the others. As regards those who were sent 
towards Mosul, it is said that they are to be settled at 
a distance of about 16 miles from the railway; this prob- 
ably means that the\'_ ,are to be d rLven into the de sejt, 
}yhere__dieiji_extir^ witnesses. 

What I have written down is only a small fraction of 
all the cruelties which have been practised here during 
the last two months, and which assume larger propor- 
tions every day. It is onlv a fraction of the things 
which I have seen with my own eye.s and heard from 
acquaintances and friends who were eye-witnesses. I 
am prepared at anv time to mention the dates of the 
events and to give the names of the witnesses. 



«5 



11. THE AMANUS PASSES. 

Statements by two Swiss Ladies, resident in Turkey. 
Communicated by the American Committee 
for Armenian and Syrian Relief. 

(a) Report by Fraulein M., dated i6th November, 1915. 

I have just returned from a ride on horseback through 
the Baghtche-Osmania plain, v^here thousands of exiles 
are lying out in the fields and on the roads, without any 
shelter and completely at the mercy of all manner of 
brigands. Last night, about 12 o'clock, a little camp 
was suddenly attacked. There were between 50 and 60 
persons in it. I found men and women badly wounded 
— bodies slashed ^2g^^> broken skulls and^terrible knife- 
wounds. Fortunately I was provided with clothes, so 
T could change their blood-soaked things and then 
bring them to the next inn, where they were nursed. 
Many of them were so much exhausted from the enor- 
mous loss of blood that they died, I fear, in the mean- 
time. In another camp we found thirty or forty thou- 
sand Armenians. I was able to distribute bread among 
tHern^! Desperate and half-starved, they fell upon it; 
several times I was almost pulled off my horse. A 
number of corpses were lying about unburied, and it 
was only by bribing the gendarmes that we could induce 
them to allow their burial. Usually the Armenians were 

86 



CI Lie I A AND NORTHERN SYRIA. 

not allowed to perform the last offices of love for their 
relatives. Dreadful epidemics of typhoid-fever broke 
out everywhere; there was a victmi of it practically in 
every third tent. Nearly everything had to be trans- 
ported on foot; men, women and children carried their 
few belongings on their backs. I often saw them break 
down under their burden, but the soldiers kept on driv- 
ing them forward with the butt-ends of their rifles, even 
sometimes with their bayonets. IJlgYgjJ^sse d bl eeding 
wo unds on the bodies of women that had_been caused 
bythe^eJbayanetJiiriLSts. ^lany children had lost their 
parents and were now without any support. Three 
hours' distance from Osmania two dying men were lying 
absolutely alone in the fields. They had been here for 
days without food or even a drop of water, after their 
companions had continued their march. They had 
grown as thin as skeletons, and onlv their heavy breath- 
ing showed that there was still life in them. Unburied 
w^men and children were lying in_the_ditches. The 
Turkish officials in Osmania were very obliging; I suc- 
ceeded in obtaining many concessions from them, and 
manv hardships were remedied. T obtained carriages 
to pick up the dying people and bring them in to town. 

(b) Report by Friiulein O. on a visit to the exiles' camp 
at Mamouret, 26th November, 19 15. 

We saw thousands of tiny low tents, made of thin 
material. An innumerable crowd of people, of all ages 
and every class of society ! They were looking at us 
partly in surprise, partly with the indifference of desper- 
ation. A group of hungry, begging children and women 
were at our heels: " Hanoum, bread! Hanoum, I am 
hungry; we have had nothing to cat to-day or yester- 
day!" 

You had only to look at the greedy, pale, suffering 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

faces to know that their words were true. About i,8oo 
loaves could be procured. Everybody fell greedily 
upon them; the priests who were charged with the dis- 
tribution of the bread had almost to light for their lives; 
but it was by no means sufficient, and no further bread 
was to be had. A crowd of hungry people stood im- 
ploringlv before us. The gendarmerie had to keep them 
back by force. Suddenly the order for departure was 
given. If anybody was slow in striking their tent, it 
was torn down with the bayonet. Three carriages and 
a number of camels were held in readiness. A few 
wealthv people quickly hired the carriages, while others 
less well-to-do loaded a came) with their things. The 
wailing of the poor, the old and the sick filled the air : 
*' We can't go any further, let us die here." But they 
had to go on. We were at least able to pay for a camel 
for some of them, and to give small change to others 
in order to buy bread at the next station ; clothes, sewn 
at the Mission Station in Adana, were also distributed. 
Soon the immense procession was moving on. wSome 
of the most miserable were left behind (others rested 
there__ah:eadvin_tjie_jie3 As many as 

200 — destitute, old or sick — are said to have waited there 
for help to come. The misery was increased a hundred- 
fold by the severe rain and col dTthat had set in. Every- 
where convoys left dying people in their track — little 
children and invalids perishing. Besides all this the 
epidemic_was_spreadj^^ more and more. 

(c) Report by Friiulein M. on a visit to the exiles' camp 
at Islohia, ist December, 1915. 

It had rained three days and three nights; even in 
our houses we were acutely sensible of the cold and 
damp. As soon as possible, I set out on my way. About 

88 



CILICIA AND yORTHERN SYRIA. 

200 families had been left behind at Mamouret. They 
were unable to proceed through exhaustion or illness. 
In this rain the soldiers, loo, felt no inclination to rouse 
them up and drive them on, so they were_jyjn^a^u^ in 
wh at n ij^ht hav^ e been _a_Ja.ke. There was not a single 
dry t hread le ft in thejj ragged bedding^ XTany women 
had their feet frost-bitten; they were~quite black and in 
a state for amputation. The wailing and groaning was 
horrible. Everywhere there were dying people in their 
last agonies or dead ixidies Iving in front of the tents. 
It was only by " bakshish " that the soldiers could be 
persuaded to bury them. It seemed a comfort to them 
w'hen we came with dry clothes; they could change their 
things and get some bread and small change. Then 
I drove in a carriage along the whole route to Islohia. 
Though I had seen much distress before, the objects and 
the scenes 1 saw here defy description. A fraillv-built 
woman was sitting by the roadside with her bedding on 
her back, and a young baby strapped on at the top of 
it; in Ikt arms she had a two-year-old child — its eyes 
were dim and it was at its last gasp. The woman had 
broken down in her distress and was weeping in a heart- 
breaking way. I took her with me to the next camp, 
where the child died; then I took care of her and sent 
her on her way. She was so grateful. The whole 
carriage was packed with bread. I kept on distribut- 
ing .'ill the time. We had three or four opportunities 
of busing fresh supplies. These thousands of loaves 
were a great help to us. I was also able to hire some 
hundreds of animals to help the poor people forward. 
The camp at Islohia itself is the saddest thing I have 
evvr seen. Right at the entrance a heap of dead bodies 
lav unburied. I counted .'^5, and in another place 22^ 
in the inimediai(» neighbourhood of the tents of those 
who were down with \ irulent dysentery. The filth in 

89 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

and around these tents was something indescribable. 
On one single day the burial committee buried as many 
as 580 people. Men were fighting for bread like hungry 
wolves. One saw hideous scenes. With what timidity 
and apathy these poor people often stared at me, as 
though they wondered where this assistance came from ! 
For some weeks now many camps have been provided 
daily with bread. Of course, everything has to be done 
as unobtrusively as possible. We are so thankful to 
God that we may at least do something. 

(d) Letter from Fraulein M. to Mr. N., dated 13th 
December, 191 5, on the way to Aleppo. 

I should have written long before this, but during these 
last weeks I have been more on the road than at home, 
and the work in the camps was often so urgent that I 
could not find time for anything else. I suppose you 
have had, in the meantime, the receipt for the 200 liras 
you sent me. Many thanks for the quick response. I 
only wish you could see these poor people yourself; 
you would get an impression of the absolutely dreadful 
need and distress that these camps conceal. It is simply 
indescribable; one has to have seen it oneself. So far I 
have had no difficulty whatever; on the contrary, the 
officials here are most obliging, and grateful for every- 
thing we are doing for the poor people. You will find 
some reports enclosed which Miss O. copied for you as 
well ; they will give you an idea of what we are doing 
here. Up to the present we have worked in four camps, 
twelve hours distant. We were often able to distribute 
about 10 to 20 liras* worth of bread a day; besides this, 
we gave flour, clothes and nirra to many sick people, 
to help them on the long journey. Sometimes it hap- 
pened that in some places we did not have nearly enough 

90 



CILICIA AND XORTHERN SYRIA. 

bread — in such cases we provided the people with money 
to buy bread at the next bakery along the route. 

Now we are on our way to Aleppo, and Miss O. will 
stay there some weeks, D.\\, to prepare everything for 
another journey to Der-el-Zor. I intend to come back 
soon, since there is still much work to do on the 
Mamouret-Islohia route, and it seems to me that we 
ought not to give up the work among the distressed sa 
long as any of them are left in this place, for if we did 
they would absolutely die of starvation. Judging by 
our recent experience, we shall need about 300 to 400 
liras a month. Dr. L. told me to send you word about 
this, because I should get the money from you. It 
would be better not to stop th(^ work for lack of money, 
because the poor people would suffer by it. If, how- 
ever, you think that less money ought to be spent, or 
that the whole work should be given up, please send 
me a telegram in time, so that we may stop doing it. 
If not, will you please be so kind as to send me the 
amount. To-day I have asked you b\ wire to send me 
400 liras — 200 for Mamouret and 200 for Islohia-Hassan- 
Beyli. 

I hope vou are well. W'e got a message that Dr. L. 
is down with tvphoid. I hope that God will soon give 
him new strength. Friiulein O. and I both send you 
our best wishes. 



M' 



D. ALEPPO. 

12. '*A word to the accredited representatives of 
the German people," by Ur. Martin Niepage, 
Higher Grade Teacher at the German Tech- 
nical School at Aleppo, at present at Werni- 
gerode. 



On my return in September, 1915, from Beirut to 
Aleppo, after a three months' holiday, I heard, to my 
horror, that a new period of Armenian massacres had 
been initiateZTI I was told~that thev were far niore 



terri ble than thos e under Abdul Hamid ; and that their 
object was to exte rminate, root and branch, the intelli- 
gt^nt, prosperous and pro^ressne nation of the Arm e- 
nians and to transfer their property to Turkish hands. 
^'At first I was unable to believe such a monstrous 
report. I was told that in various quarters of Aleppo 
there were masses of half-famished human beings, 
the survivors of so-called "deportation-convoys," and 
that in order to cover the extermination of the Arme- 
nian people with a political cloak, military reasons had 
been put forward, which were alleged to necessitate the 
expulsion of the Armenians from the ho mes they had 
occu]Died__for_oyer^2opo year^ aTid_rheir_deportation 
intojhe Arabian Desert. It was also said that indi- 
vidual Armenians had lent themselves to acts of espion- 
age. 



93 



A 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

After having investigated the facts and made en- 
quiries on all sides, I came to the conclusion that the 
accusations against the Armenians related in all cases 
to trifling matters, which were taken as a pretext to 
slay ten thousand innocent persons for one who was 
guilty, to commit the most savage outrages against 
women and children, and to carrv on a war of starva- 
tion against the deported persons with the object of 
destroying the whole nation. 

In order to test the judgment which I had formed 
from the information I had obtained, I visited every 
place in the town in which there were any Armenians 
who had formed part of one of the convoys and had 
been left behind. I found in dilapidated caravansaries 
(bans) heaps of dead bodies, many of which were in 
an advanced state of decomposition, with living persons 
interspersed among them who were all near to the agony 
of death. In other yards I found heaps of sick and 
famished persons who were absolutely uncared for. 
Near the German Technical School, of which I am 
one of the higher grade teachers, there were four bans 
of this class with 700-800 deported persons who were 
starving. We, the teachers at the school, and our 
pupils had to pass them every day. Through the open 
windows we saw, each time we went out, the emaciated 
forms, covered with rags, of these miserable beings. 
Our school children had every morning almost to touch 
the two-wheeled carts drawn by oxen which they had to 
pass in the narrow streets, and in which every day 8-10 
rigid corpses w^re carted away without coflins and with- 
out covering of any sort, the arms and legs protruding 
from the cart. 

After having been a witness of these scenes during 
several days, I thought it my duty to draft the follow- 
ing report-- — 



94 



1 



ALEPFO. 

" As teachers at the German Technical School at 
Aleppo we take leave humbly to submit the following 
report : — 

" W^ deem it our duty to call attention to the fact 
that our educational work will lose its moral founda- 
tion and the esteem of the natives, if the German 
Government is not in a position to prevent the brutality 
with which the wives and children of slaughtered Arme- 
nians are treated in this place. The convoys which, on 
the departure of the exiles from their homes in Upper 
Armenia, consisted of 2,000-3,000 persons — men, women 
and children — arrive here in the south with a remnant 
of only two or three hundred survivors. The men are 
killed on the way, the women and children, excepting 
those of unattractive appearance and those who are quite 
old f>r quite voung, are first abused by Turkish soldiers 
and officers, and then brought into Turkish or Kurd 
villages, where thev have to go over to Islam. As 
regards the remnant of the caravans, every effort is 
made to reduce them by hunger and thirst. Even when 
a river is passed, those who are d\'ing of thirst are not 
permitted to drink. As their onlv food a small cjuan- 
titv of flour is strewn on ihcir hands as a daily ration; 
this thev greedilv lick off, but its only effect is to delay 
death from starvation for a little while longer. 

" Opposite to the German Technical School at Aleppo 
in which we do our work as teachers, a remnant of some 
of these convovs is Iving in one of (he hans; there are 
about 400 emaciated forms; about 100 l^oys and girls, 
from five to seven vears old, are among them. Most of 
them are suffering from typhoid and dysentery. On 
entering the vard one has the impression of coming 
into a lunatic asylum. When food is brought to them, 
one notices that thev h.'i\c lost the habit «»f eating. The 
stomach, weakened bv month.s of siar\aiion. has ceased 



<)5 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

to be able to receive food. Any bread that is given to 
them is laid aside with an air of indifference. They 
just lie there quietly, waiting for death. 

" How can we teachers read German fairy tales with 
our pupils, or, indeed, the story of the Good Samaritan 
in the Bible? How can we ask them to decline and 
conjugate indifferent words, while round about in the 
neighbouring yards the starving brothers and sisters 
of our Armenian pupils are succumbing to a lingering 
death ? In these circumstances our educational work 
flies in the face of all true morality and becomes a 
mockery of human feeling. 

"And those poor creatures who in their thousands 
have been driven through the town and the neighbour- 
ing districts into the desert; nearly all of them are 
women and children, and what becomes of them ? 
They are driven on from place to place, until the 
thousands dwindle into hundreds and until the hun- 
dreds dwindle into insignificant remnants. And these 
remnants are again driven on until the last survivors 
have ceased to live. Then only the final goal of the 
migration has been reached. Then the wanderers have 
arrived at ' the new homes assigned to the Armenians,* 
as the newspapers express it. 

* Ta'alhn el aleman ^ {' that is the teaching of the 
Germans ') says the simple Turk, when asked about 
the authors of these measures.* The educated Moslenis 
are convinced that, though the German people may dis- 
approve of such horrors, the German Government is 
taking no steps to prevent them, out of consideration 
for its Turkish Allies. 

"Mohammedans of more refined feelings, Turks as 
well as Arabs, shake their heads disapprovingly; they 



* The italics are the Editor's. 

96 



3 



ALEPPO. 

do not even conceal their tears when, in the passage of 
a convoy of deported Armenians tlirough the town, 
they see Turkish soldiers infjictingf blows with heavy 
sticks on women in advanced pregnancv or dving per- 
sons who cannot drag themselves any further. They 
cannot imagine thai their (lOvernment has ordered these 
cruelties, and ascribe all excesses to the £uili of the 
Germans, who during the war are held to he the teachers 
of the Turks in all matters * Even the Mollahs declare 
in the Mosques that it was not the Sublime Porte but 
the German officers who had ordered the ill-treatment 
and annihilation of the Armenians. 

" The things which in this place have been before 
everybody's eyes during many months, must indeed 
remain a blot o n Germany's sh ield of honour in the 
memory of Oriental nations. 

" Many educated persons, who do not wish to be 
obliged to give up their faith in the character of the 
Germans whom they have hitherto respected, explain 
the matter to themselves in the following manner: they 
say, ' The German nation probably knows nothing of 
the horrible massacres which are on foot at the present 
time against the native Christians all over Turkey. 
How is it possible otherwise, having regard to the 
veracitv of the German nation, that articles should 
appear in German papers showing complete ignorance 
of all these events, and only stating that some individual 
Armenians were deservedly shot by martial law as spies 
and traitors?' Others say: ' Perhaps the hands of the 
German Government are tted by some convention regu- 
lating the limits of its competence, or intervention does 
not appear opportune at the present moment.' 

* The italics arc the Editor's. 

97 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

'' It is known to us that the Embassy at Constant 
tinople was informed of all these events by the German 
Consulates, As, notwithstanding this fact, nothing has 
been altered in the system of dciyorfation, our conscience 
compels us to make this report,"* 

At the time I composed this report, the German 
Consul at Aleppo was represented by his colleague 
from Alexandretta, Consul Hoffmann. The latter told 
me that the Embassy at Constantinople was fully in* 
formed of what was happening in the country by 
repeated reports from the Consulates at Aleppo, Alex- 
andretta and Mosul, but that a report about the things 
which I had seen with my own eyes would be welcome 
as a supplement to the existing records, and as filling 
in the details. He promised to send my report by a 
sure agency to the Embassy at Constantinople. I there- 
upon drafted a report in the desired manner, giving a 
detailed description of the state of things in the han 
opposite our school. The Consul wished to add some 
photographs which he himself had taken in the han. 
They revealed heaps of corpses, between which young- 
children, still alive, were crawling about or relieving 
nature. 

In this revised form the report was signed not only 
by me, but also by my colleagues, Dr. Graeter (higher 
grade teacher) and Frau Marie Spiecker. The Director 
of our Institution, Herr Huber, also added his name 
and the following words : " The report of my colleague, 
Dr. Niepage, is not in any w^ay exaggerated. For many 
weeks we have lived here in an air poisoned with sick- 
ness and the stench of corpses. Only the hope for a 



The italics are the Editor's. 

98 



ALEPPO. 

speedy change of things makes it possible for us to 
continue our work."* 

The hoped-for change of things did not occur. I 
then thought of resigning my post as higher grade 
teacher at the German l^echnical School, stating as 
the ground for my decision that it appeared senseless 
and morally indefensible to give instruction and educa- 
tion as a representative of luiropean culture, and at the 
same time to have to sit with folded hands while the 
Government of the country abandoned persons belong- 
ing to the same nation as our pupils to an agonizing 
death by starvation. But those around me, as well as 
the Director of the Institution, Herr Huber, dissuaded 
me from this intention. My attention was called to the 
fact that It would be useful for us to remain in the coun- 
try as eye-witnesses of the events which were occurring. 
Perhaps our presence would have the effect of inducing 
the Turks, out of consideration for us Germans, to 
behave somewhat more humanely towards their unfor- 
tunate victims. I see now that I have far too long 
remained a silent witness of all these wrongs. 

Nothing was improved by our presence, and we our- 
selves were able to give only very little help. Frau 
Spieckcr, our energetic, brave fellow teacher, purchased 
some soap, and the lice-covered bodies of the women 
and children who were still alive in our neighbourhood 
were washed and freed from vermin (there were no men 
left). Frau Spiecker engaged some women, who pre- 
pared soup for those of the patients who were still able 
to eat. I mvself distributed, every evening for six 
weeks, among the dying children the contents of two 



* The remarks of this Headmaster, who only calls attention to 
the personal inconvenience suffered by the teachers in the school, 
is in sin«-ular contrast with the impassioned feelings of pity for 
the Arnunians expressed and undoubtedly felt by the author of 
the report. — Editok's Notf:. 

99 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

pails filled with tea, cheese and soaked bread. But 
when the hunger-typhus or spotted-typhus spread into 
the town from these charnel-houses, we succumbed, 
together with five of our colleagues, and had to stop 
our relief work. Moreover, no help given to the exiles 
who came to Aleppo was of any use. We could only 
afford those condemned to death a few slight alleviations 
of their death agony. 

What we saw here in Aleppo with our own eyes was, 
in fact, only the last scene of the great tragedy of the 
extirpation of the Armenians; only a trifling fraction 
of the horrors which were being perpetrated simultane- 
ously in the other Turkish provinces. The engineers 
of the Bagdad railway, on their return from the section 
under construction, and German travellers, who on their 
way had met the caravans of the deported, spoke of still 
more abominable horrors. Many of these men could 
eat nothing for days; the impression of the loathsome 
things they had seen was too overpowering. 

One of them (Herr Greif, of Aleppo) reported that 
heaps of £orpses_ofjvaolated_jvmm^^ Iving naked 

on the railway _emj>ankment near Abiad^nd Ras^eT-Ain.~^ 
I n_th£case6rniar^ sticks had been driveiTlintoThe 
anus . Another^ (Herr Spiecker, of Aleppo) saw Turks 
tie Armenian men together, fire several volleys of small 
shot with fowling pieces into the human mass, and go 
off laughing, while their victims slowly perished in 
frightful convulsions. Other men were sent rolling 
down steep slopes with their hands tied behind their 
backs. Below there were women, who slashed those 
who had rolled down with knives until they were dead. 
A Protestant minister who two years ago had given a 
most cordial reception to my colleague. Dr. Graeter, 
had his finger nails torn out. 



I GO 



ALEPPO. 

The German Consul at Mosul said in my presence 
in the German Club at Aleppo that he had seen so 
ma ny cJ iUdren^s hands lying_Jiacked off on his ivay 
from Mosul to Aleppo, that one could have paved the 
road with them* 

I n J h c_G e r man H ospital at Ourfa tlierc is also a little 
girl, both of whose hands have been hacked off. PTerr 
ttolstein, the German Consul at Mosul, also saw, in 
the neighbourhood of an Arab village, shortly before 
reaching Aleppo, shallow graves with freshly-buried 
Armenian corpses. The Arab villagers asserted that 
they had killed these Armenians by order of the Govern- 
ment. One of them said proudly that he personally 
had killed eight. 

In many houses in Aleppo, inhabited by Christians, 
I found Armenian girls hidden away, whom some acci- 
dental circumstances had enabled to escape death ; they 
had either remained behind in a state of exhaustion, 
having been taken for dead when their convoy was 
driven on; or some European had found an oppor- 
tunity to purchase these miserable beings for a few 
shillings from the Turkish soldier \\Ji^JLLaiIast_v_iqlated 
them. All these girls are in a state of mental collapse. 
Many had been compelled to l^ook on while their parents 
had th eir th roats ciij_. I know some of these pitiable 
creatures, who for months were unable to utter a word, 
and even now cannot be coaxed into a smile. A girl of 



* The italics are the Editor's. The fact which comes out 
clearly in several of the documents included in this pamphlet, 
that many Gorman Consuls reported indixnantly about these 
horrors, and that thfir reports were left unheeded, throws a 
lurid li>fht on the attitudf itf thr riornum riovemment. — Editor's 
NoTK. • 



lOi 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

the age of_ i4 was r eceived^ hrto_the home of the depot- 
managei^ofjhe Bagdad railway at_Aleppo7lTerflvrause. 
The child had been raped so many times by Turkish 
soldiers^ during one night thatshe had completely lost 
lier reason. I saw her tossing on her pillow in delirium 
with hot lips, and I found it difficult to make her drink 
some water. 

A German who is known to me witnessed the follow- 
ing incident in the neighbourhood of Ourfa; hundreds 
of Christian peasant women were forced by Turkish 
soldiers to take off all their clothes. For the amuse- 
ment of the soldiers they had to drag themselves 
through the desert for days together in a temperature 
of 40° Centigrade, until their skin was completely burnt. 
Anothej; pers on saw a Tu£k tea^ a child out of thejwoml^ 
of its Arm enian mother, anj^irp^'t against the wall. 

Other facts, some of them worse than the few in- 
stances given here, are recorded in the numerous reports 
of the German Consuls at Alexandretta, Aleppo and 
Mosul.* The Consuls are of opinion that, up to the 
present date, about a million Armenians have perished "^l 
by the massacres of the last months. Women and chil- 
dren, who either were killed, or died from starvation, 
probabl y form one half of jthjs^nuniber . '^ ™~ "J 

Conscience compels us to call attention to these things. 
Though the Government, by the annihilation of the 
Armenian people, only intends to further internal politi- 
cal objects, the execution of the scheme has in many 
respects the character of a persecution of Christians. 

All the tens of thousands of young girls and women, 
who have been dragged away to Turkish harems, and 
the masses of children who have been collected by the 

* See the last note (Editor's Ndte). 
102 



ALEPPO. 

Government and distributed among Turks and Kurds, 
are lost to the Christian Churches and are compelled to 
go over to Islam. The opprobrious name of " Giaour ** 
is again used against the Germans. 

In Adana I saw a troop of Armenian orphans march-" 
ing through the streets under the escort of Turkish sol- 
diers. The parents have been slaughtered; the children 
must become Mohammedans. It has happened every- 
where that adult Armenians were able to sa\e their lives 
by declaring their readiness to go over to Islam. In 
some places, however, Turkish officials, wishing to 
throw dust in the eyes of Europeans, replied grandilo- 
quently to Christians who had applied for admission 
into the Mohammedan fold, that religion is not a thing 
to play with, and preferred to have the petitioners killed. 
Men like Talaat Bey and l^nver Pasha have repeatedly 
said, thanking distinguished Armenians, who brought 
them gifts, that they would have been still better pleased 
if the givers had presented them as Mohammedans. 
One of these gentlemen said to a newspaper reporter : 
" Certainlv we are now punishing manv innocent 
people, but we must protect oursel\<*s, even from those 
who might become guilty in the future." vSuch reasons 
are adduced bv Turkish statesnieiL in justijication of 
the indiscriminate slaiight^er^ of defen£e]ej;^ \vcrnan and 
childrerL- A German Catholic priest reports that l^nver 
Pasha had told Monsignore Oolci, the Papal represen- 
tative at Constantinople, that he would not rest wln lg 
one single Armenian was still lixing.^ 

The object of the deportations »s the extirpation of 
the entire Armenian nation. This intention is also 
evidenced bv the fact that the Turkish Government 
refuses all help from missionaries. Sisters of Mercy, 
and Europeans settled in the conntry. and tries syste- 



I c ? ; 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

matically to prevent the giving of any such help. A 
Swiss engineer was to have come before a court-martial, 
because he had distributed bread in Anatolia among the 
starving women and children belonging to a convoy of 
deported persons. The Government did not scruple to 
deport Armenian pupils and teachers from the German 
schools at Adana and Aleppo, and Armenian children 
from the German orphanages; the protests of the Con- 
suls and of the heads of the institutions were left un- 
heeded. The offer of the Amer ican Government to take 
the deported persons to America on American sTiips 
and at America's expense was reliTsecI^ 

What our German Consuls and many foreigners resid- 
ing in Turkey think about the massacres of Armenians 
will one day be known from their reports. As regards 
the opinion of the German officers in Turkey I am 
unable to say anything. I ojten noticed when in their 
company an ominous silence or a convulsive effort to 
change the subject whenever any German of strong feel- 
ings and independent judgment began to speak about 
the fearful sufferings of the Armenians J^ 

When Field-Marshal von der Goltz travelled to Bag- 
dad and had to cross the Euphrates at Djerabulus, there 
was a large encampment of half-starved, deported Arme- 
nians there. Shortly before the Field-Marshal's arrival 
these wretched people, as I was told in Djerabulus, were 
driven under the whip a few miles off over the hills, 
sick and dying persons among the number. When von 
der Goltz passed through, all traces of the repulsive spec- 
tacle had been removed. When, soon afterwards, I 
visited the place with a few colleagues, we still found 
in the more out of the way places corpses of men and 



The italics are the Editor's. 
104 



ALEPPO. 

children, remnants of clothes, and skulls and bones 
which had been partly stripped of the flesh by jackals 
and birds of prey. 

The author of this report considers it out of the ques- 
tion that the German Government, if it luere seriously 
inclined to stem the tide of destruction even at this 
eleventh hour, could find it impossible to hrimr the 
Turkish Government to reason. If the Turks are really 
so ivell disposed to us Germans as people say, then it 
is surely permissible to show them to what an. extent 
they compromise us before the whole civilized world, 
if we, as their Allies, are to look on calmly, when hun- 
dreds of thousands of our fellow-Christians in Turkey 
are slaughtered, when their wives and dau^s^hters are 
violated, and their children brought up in the faith of 

Islam* Do no_t jthe ^Ijjrks un^rstand that their 

barbarous acts are imputed to us, and that we Ger- 
ma ns shall be accused either of criminal connivance 
or of contemptible weakness if we shut our eyes^to the 
abominable horrors which this war has brought forth^ 
and attempt~to ignore facts which are already known to 
the whole world? If the Turks are really as intelligent 
as people say, it should surely not be impossible to con- 
vince them of the fact that, by extirpating the Christian 
nations in Turkey, they are exterminating the produc- 
tive factors and the intermediaries _of European t radg 
ancL _ ^f^nprnl riy il j<;atiorr? If the! urks are really as 
far-seeing as people say, they will not be blind to the 
danger, that all civilized European States, after having 
discovered the things which were done in Turkey during 
the war, must form the conclusion that Turkey has for- 
feited the right of governing herself, and has, once for 
all, destroyed all belief in her capacity for becoming 



* The italics are the Editor's. 
105 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, / 

civilized, and in her tolerance. Will not the German 
Government be acting in Turkey's own best interests, 
if she prevents her from committing economic and moral 
suicide ? 

A\^ith this report 1 am attempting to reach the ear 
of the Government through the accredited representa- 
tives of the German people. These things, painful as 
•they are, must no longer be passed over in silence 
at the sittings of the Committees of the Reichstag. 
Nothing would be more humiliating for us than the 
erection of a costly palace at Constantinople com- 
memorating German-Turkish friendship, while we are 
unable to protect our fellow-Christians from barbari- 
ties unparalleled even in the blood-stained history bf 
Turkey. Would not the funds collected be better spent 
in building orphanages for the innocent victims of 
Turkish barbarism ? 

When, after the Adana massacres in 1909, a sort of 
"reconciliation banquet" took place, in which high 
Turkish officials as well as the heads of the Armenian 
clergy took part, an Armenian ecclesiastic made a 
speech, the contents of which were communicated to 
me by the German Consul, Biige, who was present. 
He said: " It is true we Armenians have lost much in 
the days of these massacres, our men, our women, our 
children, and our possessions. But you Turks have 
lost more. You have lost your honour." 

If we persist in treating the massacres of Christians 
ill Turkey as an internal affair, of no importance for 
us except as making us sure of Turkey's friendship, 
then it will be necessary to alter the whole orientation 
of our German cultural policy. We must cease to send 
German teachers to Turkey, and we teachers must no 
longer speak to our pupils in Turkey~of German poefs^ 

106' 



ALEPPO. 

and German philosophers, of German culture and Ger- 
man ideals, an d least of all orGer maiLXIhristianity. 

Three years ago the German Foreign Office sent me 
as higher grade teacher to the German Technical School 
at Aleppo. The Royal Provincial Education Board at 
Madp^eburg, on my departure, specially enjoined me 
to show myself worthy of the confidence reposed in 
me by the granting of leave of absence to take up the 
office of teacher at Aleppo. I should not pex form-igy 
duty as aGerm an official jmd__a s an autho rised rep re- 
sen tat rveof__Germajijcuitii^re_^ in face of the at rocities 
of which I was a witness, I were t o remain silent and 
passivel v look orTwhile the pupils entrusted to me are 
?Ir iven out to die of starv a tion in the desert. 

To a person inquiring into the reasons which have 
induced the Young Turkish Government to order and 
carry out these terrible measures against the Armenians, 
the follow ing answer might be given : — 

The Young Turk has Ix^fc^re him the European ideal 
of a united national State. He hopes to be able to 
*' Turkify " the non-Turkish Mohammedan races — 
Kurds, Persians, Arabs, and so on — hv administra- 
tive measures and " bv Turkish school education and 
by appeals to the common Mohammedan interest. He 
is afraid of the Christian nations — :\jlL[^^£|J££|''» Syrians 
and Greeks — on acco unt of tlTHx_ cultural and __£can- 
' ofnic sirptTiorit \', and their religion appears to him 
an obstacle impeding *' Turkification " bv peaceful 
measures. Therefore thev must be extirpated or forced 
into Moiiammedanism . The 'I'urks do not realise that 
they are sawing off tin* l)ran(h on which thev them- 
selves are sitting. W^ho is to bri ng projjress to Turkey, 
exxe pt the (^reek:; ^, the Arm ernans and the Syrians, who 
constitute more than a quarter of _the popul atumof the 



lo" 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

Turkish Empire? The^'furks, the least gifted among 
the races living in Turkey, themselves form onfy a 
rninority of the population, and are^ still far behind 
even the Arabs in civilisation. Is there anywhere any 
TurkislTcommerce, " Turklsh^liandicraft, Turkish^manu- 
facture, Turkish art, Turkish science? Even law and 
religion, even the literary^ngua,ge, is borrowed^ from 
the Subjected Arabs. 

We teachersT^ho for years have taught Greeks, 
Armenians, Arabs, Turks and Jews in German schools 
in Turkey, can only declare that of all our pupils the 
pure Turk s are the least willing _ajid the lea st cap able. 
Whenever one hears about anything accomplished by 
a Turk, one can be sure, in nine cases out of ten, that 
the person concerned is a Circassian, or an Albanian, 
or a Turk with Bulgar blood in his veins. Judging 
from my own personal experience, I can only prophesy 
that the real Turk will never accomplish anything in 
commerce, manufacture or science. 

The German newspapers have told us a great deal 
lately about the Turkish "hunger for education"; it 
is said that the Turks are thronging eagerly to learn 
German, and even that courses of instruction in that 
language for adults are being arranged in Turkey. No 
doubt they are being arranged, but with what result? 
They go on to tell one of a language course at a Tech- 
nical School, which started with twelve Turkish teachers 
as pupils. The author of this story, however, forgets 
to add that after four lessons only six, after five lessons 
only five, after six lessons only four, and after seven 
lessons only three pupils presented themselves, so that 
after the eighth lesson the course had to be abandoned, 
before it had properly begun, owing to the indolence 
of the pupils. I£the pupils had been Arn^eman^s, they 
would have per"severed:~^owh to tji£ end ~of the sch ool 

1 08 



ALEPPO. 

year, learnt patiently, and come away with a fair know- 
ledge oFthe German languagg^. 

\Vhat is the duty of German^^as well as of every 
civihzed Christian nation, in face of the Armenian 
massacres ? W e" must do alTwe can to preserve the 
fives of the 500,000 Armenian women and children 
who may now [beginning of 1916] be still in existence 
in Turkey and who are abandoned to starvation — to 
preserve them from a fate which would be a disgrace 
to the whole civilized world. The hundreds of thou- 
sands of deported women and ciiildren, who have been 
left lying on the borders of the Mesopotamian desert, 
or on the roads which lead there, .will not be able to 
preserve their miserable existence much longer. How 
long can people support life by picking grains of corn 
out of horse dung and depending for the rest upon 
grass? Manv of them will be beyond help on account 
of the underfeeding, which has continued for many 
months, and of the attacks of dysentery which are so 
prevalent. In Konia there are still a few thousand 
Armenians alive — educat^djpeople from Constantinople, 
who were in easv circumstances before their deporta- 
tion, physicians, authors and merc hant s; help for them 
would still be possible, before they succumb to the fate 
that threatens all. There are still i,5(X) healthy Arme- 
nians — men, women and children, including grand- 
mothers 60 years old and many children of six and 
seven— who are at work breaking stones and shovelling 
earth, on the part of the Bagdad Railway between Kiran 
and Kntilli, near the big tunnel. At the j)resent moment 
Superintendent l^ngineer Morf, of the Bagdad Railway, 
is still providing for them, but their names too have 
already been registered by the 'i\irkish Government. 
As soon as their work is completed, that is to say, j^rob- 
ablv in two or thrre months, and thev are n() longer 



lOT) 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

wanted, " new homes will be assigned to them " — which 
means that the men will be taken away and slaughtered, 
the good-looking women and girls will find their way 
into the harems, and the others will be driven about in 
th€ desert without food, until the end comes. 

The Armenian people has a claim to German help* 
When a few years ago massacres of Armenians threat- 
ened to break out in Cilicia, a German warship appeared 
off Mersina. The commander called on the Armenian 
"Katholikos" in Adana and assured him that as long 
as there was any German influence in Turkey, massacres 
like those perpetrated under Abdul Hamid would be 
impossible * The same assurance was given by the 
German Ambassador von Wangenheim [since deceased] 
at an audience given to the Armenian Patriarch and the 
President of the Armenian National Council in April, 

1915- 

Even apart from our common duty as Christians, we 
Germans are under a special obligation to put a stop 
to the complete extirpation of the surviving half million 
of Armenian Christians. We are the /\llies of Turkey, 
and having eliminated the influence of the French, 
English and Russians, we are the only foreigners who 
have any say in Turkey. We may indignantly repu- 
diate the lies circulated in enemy countries accusing the 
German Consuls of having organised the massacres. 
We shall not, however, destroy the belief of the Turkish 
people that Germany has ordered the Armenian massa- 
cres, unless energetic action be at last taken by German 
diplomatists and German officers. If only the one 
reproach remained that our timidity and our weakness 
in dealing with our Ally had prevented us from pre- 
■serving' half a million women and children from death 



* The italics are the Kdito'-'-. 
1 10 



ALEPPO. 

by starvation, the image of the German War in the 
mirror of history would be disfigured, for ail time, 
by an ugly feature. It would be a serious mistake to 
imagine that the Turkish Government would, of its 
own accord, desist from the extermination of the women 
and children, unless the strongest pressure were to be 
exercised by the German Government. A short time 
before my depar ture from Alep po in Ma v^_jai^6. all the 
women and children encamped_jiMR£s-d-Ain, on the 
Bagdad railway, w^hose number Wa s estimated at 20 ^^000, 
were mercil essly sl^aug htered. 



1 1 r 



13. ALEPPO. 

Message dated, 7th February, 1916, from Fraulein O. ; 
Published in the German Journal, " Sonnenauf- 
gang," April, 1916. 



i want to beg our friends at home not to grow weary 
of making intercession for the members of the Armenian 
nation who are in exile here. If there is no visible pros- 
pect of a change for the better, a few months more will 
see the end of them all. They are succumbing in thou- 
sands to famine, pestilence, and the inclemency of the 
weather. The exiles at Hama, Floms, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Damascus are comparatively better of!". 
They are left where they are, and can look about for 
means of subsistence. But further East, along the 
Euphrates, they are driven from place to place, plun- 
dered and maltreated. Many of our friends are dead. 



112 



E. PLACES OF EXILE. 

• 

14. Der-el-Zor: Letter, dated 12th July, 1915, from 
Schwester L. Mohring, a German Missionary, 
describing her Journey from Bagdad to the 
Passes of Amanus ; Published in the German 
Journal, *' Sonnenaufgang," September, 1915. 

At Der-el-Zor, a large town in the desert about six 
days' journey from Aleppo, we found the big han full 
to overflowing. All available rooms, roofs, and veran- 
dahs were occupied by Armenians. The majority were 
w^omen and children, but there w^ere also a certain num- 
ber of men squatting on their quilts w herever they could 
find a spot of shade. As soon as I heard that they were 
Armenians, I started going round and talking to them. 
They were the people of Furnus (a village in th<^ neigh- 
bourhood of Zeitoun and Marash) ; herded together here 
in these narrow quarters, they presented an extraordin- 
arilv melancholy appearance. When I enquired for 
children from our Orphanage at B.M., they brought me 
a protegee of Sister O., Martha Karahashian. She gave 
me the following account of what had happen<'d. 

One day Turkish gendarmes had come to Furnus and 
arrested and carried off a large number of men, to turn 
them into soldiers. Neither they nor their famiUes knew 
where they were being taken to. Those who remained 



1 1 



x) 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

were told that they would have to leave their houses 
within the space of four nours. They were allowed to 
take with them as much as they could carry; they might 
also take their beasts. After the lapse of the specified 
time the poor people had to march out of their village 
under the escort of soldiers (zaptiehs), without knowing 
where they were going or whether they would ever see 
their village again. To begin with, as long as they were 
still among their mountains and had some provisions 
left, things went well enough. They had been promised 
money and bread, and were actually given some in the 
early stages — as far as I can remember, it was 30 paras 
(ijd.) per head per day. But very soon these rations 
ceased, and there was nothing to be had but bulgur meal 
— 50 drams (=150 grammes) per head per day. In this 
fashion the Furnusli, after four weeks of extremely hard 
travelling via Marash and Aleppo, had arrived at Der- 
el-Zor. They had already been three weeks there in 
the han, and had no idea what was to happen to them. 
They had no more money left, and the provisions sup- 
plied by the Turks had also dwindled almost to nothing. 
It was days since they had had any bread. In the towns 
they had been barred in at nights, and not allowed to 
speak to the inhabitants. Martha, for instance, had not 
been allowed at BM. to go to the Orphanage. She said 
to me sadlv : *' We had two houses and we had to leave 
everything; now there are moiihadjirs* in them." There 
had been no massacres in Furnus, and the zaptiehs, too, 
had treated the people well. They had suffered princi- 
pally from lack of food and water on the march through 
the burning hot desert. These Yailadji or Mountaineers, 
as they called themselves, suffered twice as much from 
the heat as other people. 



Moslem immigrants from Europe, 
114 



THE PLACES OF EXILE. 

The zaptiehs escorting them told us then that, since 
the massacres, the Armenians had cherished such hatred 
against the Turks that the latter had always to go in 
fear of them. The intention now, they said, was to 
employ the Armenians in building roads, and in this 
way to move them on gradually to Bagdad. When 
asked the "wherefore" of this, the zaptiehs explained 
that the people had been in collusion with Russia. The 
Armenians themselves declared that thev did not know 
the reason for their expulsion. 

Next day, at the midday rest, we fell in with a whole 
convoy of Armenians. The poor people had made them- 
selves primitive goat's hair tents after the manner of the 
Kurds, and were resting in them. Pnit the majority lay 
on the burning sand without defence against the scorch- 
ing sun. On account of the number of sick, the Turks 
had allowed them a day's rest. It is simply impossible 
to conceive anything more disconsolate than such a 
mass of people in the desert under the given circum- 
stances. One could tell by their clothes that they had 
lived in considerable prosperity, and now miserv was 
written on their faces. "Bread!" "Bread!" was the 
universal cry. Thev were the people of G<^ben, who had 
been driven out with their Pastor. The latter told me 
that every day there were five or six deaths among the 
children and the sick. This very day they had only 
just buried the mother of a girl about nine years old, 
who was now quite alone in the world. They besought 
me most urgently to take the child with me to the 
Orphanage. The Pastor gave precisely the same ac- 
count of what had happened as the little girl at Der- 
el-Zor. 

No one w ithout personal experience of_cid(^ser^can 
form anything approacTiing a concepti^ n^ of the miserv ( 



1^5 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

^nd distress. The desert is mountainous, but almost 
entirely without shade. For days together the route 
leads over rocks and is extremely difficult going. On 
the left hand, as one comes from Aleppo, there is always 
the Euphrates, which trails along like a streak of clay, 
yet not near enough for one to be able to draw water 
from it. The poor people must suffer intolerable pangs 
of thirst; no wonder that so many sicken and die. 

As it w-as the midday halt, we, too, unpacked our pro- 
visions and prepared to eat. That morning we had had 
bread and tea; our midday meal consisted once more of 
hard Arab bread, cheese, and a tin of sardines. In 
addition we had a bottle of mineral w^ater. It was not 
very sumptuous, and yet it was not an easy task to eat 
anything in face of that crowd of distressed and suffer- 
ing humanity. We gave away as much as we possibly 
could, and each of my three companions silently pressed 
into my hand a medjidia (3s. 2d.) " for the poor people." 
A bag of bread from Bagdad, as hard as stone, was 
received with extraordinary gratitude. *' We shall soak 
it in water and then the children will eat it," said the 
delighted mothers. 

Another scene comes back to me, which will give an 
idea of their destitution. One of my companions threw 
away an empty glass bottle. An old man threw him- 
self upon it, begged to be allowed to take it for himself, 
and gave profuse thanks for the boon. Then he went 
down to the river, washed it out, and brought it back 
filled with the thick clayey water, carrying it carefully 
in his arms like a treasure, to thank us for it once more. 
Now he had at least drinking water for his journey. 

Followed by many good wishes we at last continued 
on our way, with the impression of this misery still 
weighing upon us. In the evening, when we reached 

116 



THE PLACES OF EXILE, 

the village, we met yet another Armenian convoy of 
the same kind. This time it was the people of Zeitoun. 
There was the same destitution and the same complaint 
about the heat, the lack of bread and the persecutions of 
the Arabs. A little girl who had been brought up by 
Kaiserswerth Deaconesses in the Orphanage at Beirout, 
told us of her experiences in good German : — 

" Why does God allow it? Why must we suffer like 
this? Why did not they strike us dead at once!^" were 
her complaints. " In the daytime we have no water for 
the children and they cry of thirst. At night the Arabs 
come to steal our bedding and clothes. Thev have taken 
girls from us and committed outrages against women. 
If we cannot drag ourselves further on the march, we 
are beaten by the zaptiehs." 

They also told us that other women had thrown them- 
selves into the water to escape their shame, and that 
mothers with their new-born children had done the 
same, because they saw no other way out of their misery. 
Along the whole desert route there was a dearth of food 
— even for us who had money to pay for it — on account 
of the number of l\irkish soldiers passing through and 
resting at every han. In Zeitoun, too, no one had been 
killed; the people could mention no instance of it. 

The Armenian is bound up with his native soil; every 
change of climate is extremely upsetting to him, and 
there is nothing he misses so much as clear, cold water. 
For this reason alone residence in the desert is intoler- 
able for him. A speedy death for the whole family at 
once seems a better fate to the mothers than to watch 
death bv starvation slowlv approaching themselves and 
their children. 

On mv arrival at Aleppo I was at once asked about the 
Armenians, and how they were doing for supplies. Their 
case had been taken up in every possible way, and repre- 



1 1 



GEIUIANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

sentations had been made to the Government on their 
behalf. All that could be obtained was permission for 
the formation of an Armenian League of Help, which 
the Government at Constantinople as well as the Vali 
of Aleppo had sanctioned. The Armenian community 
at Aleppo at once proceeded to raise a relief fund among 
themselves, and have been supporting their poor, home- 
less brethren with money, food and clothing. 

In the Amanus mountains, on our second day's jour- 
ney after leaving Aleppo, we met with Armenians again. 
This time it was the people of Hadjin and the neighbour- 
hood. They explained to us that they were going to 
Aleppo, but they knew nothing beyond that. They had 
only been nine days on the road, and did not ask for any 
assistance. Compared with those in the desert, they 
were faring sumptuousl)^ ; they had wagons with them 
carrying their household goods, horses with foals, oxen 
and cows, and even camels. The procession making 
its w^ay up through the mountains seemed endless, and 
I could not help asking myself how long their pros- 
perity would last. They were still in the mountains on 
their native soil, and had no suspicion of the terrors 
of the desert. That was the last I saw^ of the Armenians, 
but such experiences are unforgettable, and I publish 
them here with the mpst earnest appeal for help. Many 
of the Armenians may be guilty and may only be suffer- 
ing what they have brought upon themselves, but the 
poor women and children need our help. 



118 



15, Exiles from the Euphrates : Report from 
Fraulein O. 



On the 2oth of April, 1916, 1 arrived at Meskene, and 
iound there 3,500 deported Armenians, and more than 
100 orphans. A part of the people have settled here 
as bakers and butchers, etc., even though Meskene is 
but a halting place. All the rest are begging. In every 
tent there are sick and dying. Anyone who cannot 
manage to get a piece of bread by begging, eats grass 
raw and without salt. Many hundreds of the sick are 
left without any tent and covering, in the open, under 
the glowing sun. I saw desperate ones throw them- 
selves in gra\'e-trenches and beg the grave-diggers to 
bury them. The (Government does not give the hungry 
anv bread, and no tent to tliose who remain outside. 
As I was in Meskene, there came a caravan of sick 
women and children from Bab. They are in an inde- 
scribable condition. They were thrown down from the 
wagons like dogs. They cried for water; they were 
given each a piece of dry bread, and were left there. 
No one gave them any water, though they remained a 
whole day under the hot sun. We had to work the 
whole night to ameliorate their condition a little. Among 
the orphans there was a small boy of four years old. It 
was early in the morning, and I asked him if he had 
^aten anything. He looked much amazed, and j^aid : 
'* I have always gazed at the stars, and my dear God 
has satisfied me." On my questioning him where his 
father and motlu-r were, he said simply that thev were 
dead in the desert. 

In Meskene I gathered one hundred children under a 
lent. I had their hair cut and their rags washed. 'I'hey 



119 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

received daily some bread and some soup. As I had 
to go further, I sought someone to care for the orphans. 
I found a young widow from Had j in, who asked me 
if she might take the children under her care. She 
belonged to a good family and had received a good 
education. She gave herself with an intense love to 
the children-work. Ten days after my departure they 
had sent the woman with the one hundred children 
South. I found her a few weeks later in Sepka, clothed 
in rags. She had lost her wits, and wandered about the 
place asking, '* Where are my children? What have 
you done with my children?" W^hen she had reached 
Abu Hara she had spent all her money and was desti- 
tute. The children were scattered — a prey to hunger. 
In Der-el-Zor I found two of them, the only survivors; 
they said that all the rest had perished. 

In Meskene I saw more than 600 deported who had 
lived in iNIuara till now, and who had spent a pitiful 
sojourn of nine months there. They were now once 
more persecuted and sent to different places. Slowly 
and wearily they came on with their possessions on 
their backs. As nourishment they cook grass, press the 
water out, and make balls which they dry in the sun. 

On the first of May, I came to Debsy, where I found 
the above mentioned six hundred deported, all in 
despair. They had not even been allowed to rest once 
or even to gather grass, but had been cruelly driven 
on. On the way I found people dying everywhere, 
exhausted from hunger and thirst. They had remained 
behind the caravan and must perish so painfully. Every 
few minutes came a stench of corpses. The gendarmes 
beat these stragglers, saying that they pretend to be 
tired. In Debsy there are 3,000 deported. In Abu 
Hara 6,000. In both places Ihe death rate is one per 
cent, daily. 



120 



a 



THE PLACES OF EXILE. 

In Hama I found 7,000 deported, 3,000 of them hun- 
gry and practically naked. Here there is no grass, the 
locusts have consumed everything. I saw the people 
were gathering locusts and eating them raw or cooked. 
Others were looking for the roots of grasses. They 
catch street dogs, and like savages pounce upon dead 
animals, whose flesh they eai eagerly without cooking. 
They showed me how they bury the dead, shallow near 
the tents. 

In Rakka alone there are ^jOc^deported in tents. 
The camp is situated on both banks of the Euphrates, 
but these people are not allowed to enter the city. Rich 
people are paying from T£30-40 to get permission from 
those in authority to live for a length of time in the 
city. Everywhere the same lamentable pictures repreat 
themselves. 

In Sepka there are 1,500 persons who have bought 
the privilege of establishing themselves there. The 
rest, 6,000, remain in camps on the banks of the 
Euphrates. There is great misery here. Some in 
despair throw themselves into the river. In each 
deportation from one place to another, at least five 
or six perish through the brutal illtreatment of the 
accompanying gendarmerie. They expect to extract 
money from the poor, and exact vengeance with 
heavy blows when they receive nothing. Many are 
transported on boats in the Euphrates. 

In Tibne I found^5jOga — everywhere we met caravans 
of deportees. In every Arabian village there are some 
families, jn ev£JX -Arabian ^loijse youn^ women and 
girls. Here the Government is giving 150 gr. of bread 
tcTevery poor person daily. Children and grown-ups 
search among the garbage heaps for food, and what- 



121 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

ever is eatable (chewable) is eaten. At the butchers' 
people wait eagerly for scraps. 

Of every fifty persons who start from Rakka or 
Sepka on boats, twenty arrive, often even less. At the 
time of my arrival, the Government had gathered 20a 
orphans in a house in Der-el-Zor. At my departure (six 
weeks later) there were 800. They get daily a little bread 
and some soup. In the meantime 12,000 deported came 
to Der-el-Zor. JEvery day w^e see caravans going in 
the direction of Mosul. Nevertheless, at my depar- 
ture, there were at Der-el-Zor and in its neighbour- 
hood over 30,000 Armenia ns. Those who hav-e means 
are getting permission to delay. The rest must proceed 
further. The deported are especially badly treated in 
the region of Der-e'1-Zor. The people are driven back 
and forward with whip blows, and cannot even take 
their most urgent necessities. On my return I met 
ne w caravans everywhere . The people have the appear- 
ance of lost men. We often see a whole row^ of ghastly 
forms rising suddenly out of a grave and asking for 
bread and water. They have all dug their graves and 
lie waiting for death. People of better standing, who' 
cannot make up their minds to beg for a piece of bread, 
lie, when exhausted, on their beds, till death comes ta 
release them. No one looks after them. In Sepka a 
preacher from Aintab told me that parents have often 
killed their children. At the Government investigation 
it was shown that some people had eaten their children. 
It has happened that dying people have been fought 
over in order to secure their flesh for food. 

Another report from the region of Meadine and Ana, 
south of Der-el-Zor, where there are thousands of 
deported, w^ill be sent by the next mail. Our mes- 
senger returned to Aleppo on the 20th June. On the 
26th he was again on a journey to the South. 



122 



APPENDIX. 

Reports by Mohammedan Officers in the Turkish 
Army as to incidents witnessed by them. 

(1) A.B.'s Report, 

In April, 1915, 1 wa.'^ ciuartered at Erzeroum. An 
order came from Constantinople that Armenians inhabit- 
ing the frontier towns and villages be deported to the 
interior. It was said then that this was only a precau- 
tionary measure. I saw at that time large convoys of 
Armenians go ihrougli Lrzcrouni. They were mostly 
old men, women and children. Some of the able-bodied 
men had been recruited in the Turkish Army and many 
had fled to Russia. In May, 1915, I was transferred 
to Trebizond. in July an order came to deport to the 
interior all the Armenians in the Vilayet of Trebizond. 
Being a member of the Court .Martial, I kne w that depor - 
ta tions meant massacres . *^ 

Tile Armenian liishop of Trebizond was ordered to 
proceed under escort to I^rzcroum to answer for charges 
trumped up against him. iUit instead of I*!rzeroum he 
was taken to Baipurt and from there to (iumush-Khana. 
'I'he (iovernor of tli«' latler p\c\co was thcFi Colonel 
Abdul-Kader Aintabli, of tli<' Ceneral Stall". He is 
famous for his atr(jcitie.s against the Armenians. lie 
had the Bisho p murde r ed at night . The l)ishop o f 
r.rzeroum wab also murdered at (jumush-Khana. 



12 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 



Besides the deportation order referred to above, an 
Imperial " Iradeh " was issued ordering that all deser- 
ters, when caug-ht, should be sliot without trial. The_ 
secret order read 

rh< 



Ar meni ans " in lieu of deserters/ 



<ft __Th^ Suitauls "Iradeh" was accompaniedlDy^^ar "tetua" 
from Sheikh-ul-lslam stating that the Armenians had 
shed Moslem blood and their killing was lawful. Then 
the deportations started. The children were kept back 
at first. The Government opened up a school for the 
grown-up children, and the American Consul of Trebi- 
zond instituted an asylum for the infants. When the 
first batches of deported Armenians arrived at Gumush- 
Khana all able-bodied men were sorted out, with the 
excuse that they were going to be given work. The 
women and children were sent ahead under escort with 
the assurance by the Turkish authorities that their final 
destination was Mosul and that no harm will befall 
them. The men kept behind were taken out of town 
in batches of 15 or 20, lined up on the e dge of ditches 



prepared beforehand, shot, and thrown into the ditcfies. 
Hundreds of men were shot every day in a similar 
manner. The women and children were attacked on their 
^vay by the " Shotas " and armed bands organised by 
the Turkish Government, who attacked them and seized 
a certain number. After plundering and committing the 
most dastardly outrages on the women and children, 
they massacred them in cold blood. These attacks 
were a daily occurrence until every woman and child 
had been got rid of. The military escorts had strict 
orders not to interfere with the " Shotas." 



The childre n that the Government had taken in charge 
were also deported and jnassacred. ' " ^ 



The italics are the Editor's. 



124 




APPENDIX. • 

The infants in the care of the American Consul at 
Trebizond were taken away on the pretext that they 
were going to be sent to Sivas, where an asylum had 
been prepared for them. They_w ere tak en out to sea 
in li ttle boa ts, ^t some distance ou t th ey we re stabbed 
to death, put in sacks and thrown i nt o the se a. A few 
days later some of their little bodies were washed up 
on the shore of Trebizond. 

In July, 191 5, I was ordered to accompany a convoy 
of deported Armenians. It was the last batch from 
Trebizond. There were in the convoy 120 me n, 700 
chi ldren , and about 400 worn en. From Trebizond I 
took them to Gumush-Khana. Here the 120 men were 
taken away, and, as I was informed later, they were all 
killed. At Gumush-Khana I was ordered to take the 
women and children to Erzindjan. Ori_the wav I saw 
th ousand s of bodies of Armenians unburie d. Several 
bands oF" Shotas^' met us on the way and wanted me 
to hand oxer to them women and children. But I per- 
sistently refused. I did leave on the way about 200 
children with Moslem families who were willing to take 
care of them and educate them. The '' Mutessarif " of 
Erzindjan ordered me to proceed with the convoy to 
Kamach. At the latter place the authorities refused to 
take charge of the women and children. I fell ill and 
wanted to go back, b ut I was told that as long as the 
Armenians in mv cha rge we re a 1 i \- e I would be sent 
from one pl ace to the o ther^. Howener, f managed^o 
include mv batch with the deported Armenians that 
had come from Erzeroum. In charge of the latter was 
a colleague of mine, F.ffendi, from the Gen- 
darmerie. He told me afterwards that after leaving 
Kamach thev came to a \alley where the Euphrates 
ran. A band of ** Shotas " sprang out and stopped the 
convoy. Thev ordered (he escort to keep away, and 



125 



i 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA, 

then shot every one of the Arme nians and threw thern 
into the rj yej\_ 

At Trebisond the Moslems %vere warned that if they 

sheltered Arvienians they would he liable to the death 

penalty * 

t Government ofiicials at Trebizond picked out some of 

I the prettiest Armenian women of the best families. After 

) committing the worst outrages on them, they had them 

^ killed. 

r Cases of rape of women and girls even publicly are 
) very numerous. They were systematically murdered- 
after the outrage. 

The Armenians deported from Erzeroum started with 
their cattle and whatever possessions they could carry. 
When they reached Erzindjan they became suspicious, 
seeing that all the Armenians had already been deported. 
The Vali of Erzeroum allayed their fears, and assured 
them most solemnly that no harm would befall them. 
He told them that the first convoy should leave for 
Kamach, the others remaining at Erzeroum until they 
received word from their friends informing them of their 
safe arrival to destination. And so it happened. Word 
came that the first batch had arrived safelv at Kamach, 
which was true enough. But the men were kept at 
Kamach and shot, and the women an d children were 
massacred by the '' Shotas_l'_afteiMeaving that towrTT 
The Turkish officials in charge of the deportation and 
extermination of the Armenians w^ere : At Erzeroum, 
Bihaa Eddin vShaker Bey; at Trebizond, Naiil Bey, 
Tewfik Bey Monastirly, Colonel of Gendarmerie, the 
Commissioner of Police; at Kamach, the mem.ber of 
Parliament for Erzfndjan. The " Shotas' " headquar- 
ters ivere also at Kamach. Their chief was the Kurd 

* The italics are the Editor's. 
T26 



APPENDIX, 

Murzabey, who boasted that he alone ha d killed 7 0,000 
'Armenians. Afterwards he was thouf^^lit to be danger- 
ous by the Turks, and thrown into prison charged with p P 
having hit a gendarme. He was eventually executed in - 
secret. 

(2) G.D.'s Report. 

In August, 1915, in the suburbs of Mush 1 saw large 
numbers of dead bodies of Armenians, men, women and 
children, lying in the fields. Some had been shot, some 
stabbed, and most of them had been horribly mutilated. 
The women were mostly naked. 

In the villages around Mush I saw old women and 
children wandering in the streets, haggard and emaci- 
ated. 

In the same month, in a camp outside Bitlis, I saw 
collected about 500 women, girls, and children, guarded 
by gendarmes. I asked the latter what was to become 
of these people. They said that they were be'.m^ de- 
ported, but that they had orders to let the Bands deal 
ivith them on the ivay. The Bands had been orfi^anized 
by the Turkish Government for the purpose of 
massacrinjs^ the Armenians. They ivere formed by 
Kurds, Turkish gendarmes and criminals ivho had been 
specially set free.* 

On the river at Bitlis I saw quite a number of bodies 
of Armenians floating on the water, and some washed 
up on the banks. The smell was pestilential and the 
water undrinkable. 

In the same month of August, in the country at a 
distance of about two hours from Zaart, I saw the bodies 
of about 15,000 mass acred Armenians. Thev were piled 
up on top of each olher in two ra\ ines. 'Vhv Armenian 



* Tho italics arf^ the Editor's. 
127 



GERMANY, TURKEY AND ARMENIA. 

Bishop of Zaart was, at his own request, taken to a cave 
near by and shot. 

On my return from Zaart to Mush, in a village of the 
suburbs of Mush over 500 Armenians, mostly women 
and children, were herded up in a stable and locked in. 
The gendarmes threw [laming torches through an open- 
ing in the ceiling. They were all burnt alive. I did not 
go near, but I distinctly saw the flames and heard the 
screams of the poor victims. 

I heard from reliable persons that women in the family 
way had their bodies cut open and the child snatched 
out and thrown aw^ay. 

At Mush the streets were strewn with bodies of Arme- 
nians. Every Armenian who ventured out of doors w-as 
instantlv killed. 

Even men of great age, blind and invalids, w-ere not 
spared. 

From Mush to Hinis, at short distances from each 
other, I saw piles of bodies of Armenians in the fields 
alongside the road. 

Between Sherkes-Koi and Hinis I saw two ravines 
filled with corpses of Armenians, about 400 in each 
ravine, mostly men. Another ravine wt.s filled with 
bodies of little children. 

At Khara-Shuban I saw a large number of bodies of 
Armenians floating on the river Murad. 

When I went to Erzindjan I was told that wholesale 
massacres were perpetrated at Erzindjan, Mamakhatoun, 
and the whole countrv around. Besides those that the 
Turks had killed and burnt alive, they threw thousands 
of them into the Euohrates. A lar^e number of Arme- 
nians, seeing that their death was inevitable, and fear- 
ing v.'orse atrocities, preferred to throw themselves into 
the Euphrates. 



Privtfd in Great Br'ifaiv hy J. J. Keliher (^ Co., TJd., 
Marf<lial.<'pa Jioad , London, S.E. 




^^^ Germany, Turkey, and Arrnenir, 
A7G4 



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